Saturday, August 31, 2013

Sights and Places: NOLA Scottish Rite Cathedral

Nestled less than a mile from the Mississippi River and the French Quarter lays a little jewel of the Crescent City. Located at 619 Carondelet Street in New Orleans is the Scottish Rite Cathedral for the New Orleans Valley under the Orient of Louisiana. I had a chance to visit this place when I visited New Orleans back in November of 2010 prior to my last deployment to Iraq.

The construction of this building began in 1850 after it was purchased by the First United Methodist Church of New Orleans from Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth French of Philadelphia. Freemasonry was growing in New Orleans as it was the second largest seaport in the nation and the population was exceeding 125,000. The material used was transported down the Mississippi River on barges then moved into position by horse and wagon. Even the barges were dismantled and some were used in the material and foundation of the building. It was not completed until 1853 due to several problems. Much of this building's materials are very unique and cannot be replaced if destroyed such as the cypress wood that is used throughout the building.

This building was used by the First United Methodist Church of New Orleans until it was purchased by the Grand Consistory of Louisiana on May 1st, 1905. After the purchase, the notable stained-glass window that adorns the front of the building was installed by the Lips Family, a family of glassworkers and Masons. The Brothers also conducted other renovations on the building to make it more suitable to their needs. The auditorium and the stage area, which contains over 160 scenery drops, were built by members of the Consistory. Another addition to this building was the library which contains a great collection of literary works outside academic institutions; one of the works the Brothers are proud of is the history of the New Orleans Consistory

Adjacent property was purchased in the 1970s and through the efforts of the members of the Valley have kept the property in order; one such noticeable addition is that they have placed protective glass around the stained-glass window. On July 1st, 1997, the Scottish Rite Foundation of New Orleans took over the care and maintenance of the Cathedral. It is an endeavor for them to do this as their geographic location leaves them under constant assault from Mother Nature, particularly hurricanes. The building has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places and thus is protected from the vicissitudes of modern development. Like all of man's constructions, this will eventually fall to the ravages of time and vicissitudes and the inclemency of the seasons, so it is my hope to keep a record of this structure.

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

The Pelican

Those who are members of the Scottish Rite should recognize the Pelican from the 18°, or Knight Rose Croix, that teaches us to practice virtue that it may produce fruit, labor to eliminate vice and purify humanity, and be tolerant of the faith and creed of others. The jewel of this degree has on the reverse, a pelican, piercing its breast to feed its seven young in a nest under it. To the Scottish Rite Mason, the pelican symbolizes every philanthropist and reformer who has offered up his life for the benefit of humanity, and so teaches us never-ending munificence toward all men, especially the needy and defenseless. It also represents the large and bountiful beneficence of nature, from whose bosom all created things draw their sustenance. The pelican has been adopted as an icon by several cultures, groups, organizations, and religions around the world to include the Christian religion.

The name comes from the Ancient Greek word 'pelekan' (πελεκάν), which itself is derived from the word 'pelekys' (πελεκυς) meaning "ax". In classical times, the word was applied to both the pelican and the woodpecker. Pelicans are a large water bird from the family Pelecanidae. They are characterized by a long beak and large throat pouch used in catching prey and draining water from the scooped up contents before swallowing. They have predominantly pale plumage except for the Brown and Peruvian Pelicans. The bills, pouches, and bare facial skin of all species become brightly colored before the breeding season. The eight living pelican species have a patchy global distribution, ranging from the tropics to the temperate zone, though they are absent from interior South America as well as from polar regions and the open ocean. They are ancient animals, fossil evidence dating them back as far as 30-million years. They also have a long history of significance in mythologies.

Heraldry used in Hungary
To the Christian, the Pelican represents the Savior hat the pelican feeds her young with her blood, as the Savior shed his blood for mankind; and hence the bird is always represented as sitting on her nest, and surrounded by her brood of young ones, who are dipping their bills into a wound in their mother's breast. Centuries ago some fabled that:
"It is said, if it be true, that the pelican kills its young, and grieves for them for three days. Then she wounds herself, and with the aspersione of her blood resuscitates her children."
The Pelican was seen as a natural symbol of Christ. There are also variations that believe it was the male pelican that killed the young and then the female brought them back. Variations of this legend are also found in India and this legend though long preceded the establishment of the Christian faith. Dante Alighieri referred to Christ as "our Pelican" in the Divine Comedy. Some believe the myth of a pelican feeding blood to her young stems from the Dalmatian Pelican which has a blood-red pouch in the early breeding season. Some also state that because the pelican collects and stores in its bill it must force it against its breast to get the contents out which makes it appears as if it is stabbings itself to feed its young.

To the ancient Egyptians, the Pelican is associated with death and the afterlife. It was also used as a protective symbol against snakes.

Pelicans are found heavily in heraldry, particularly with Christian heraldry, for reasons as explained above. It is used as a national bird for Romania as well as countries in the Caribbean and, here in the US, the Pelican is closely associated with the State of Louisiana.

Aside from the more known sacrificial symbolism, the Pelican is seen also as a symbol of nourishment, opportunism, healthy relationships. One can observe the pelican flying as a group around fisherman intent on using the efforts of the fisherman to accomplish the goal of nourishing the group. This animal has also been used as a symbol for constancy, preparation, magic, focus, wisdom, safety, humility, charity, humanity, nurturing, direction, resources, generosity, camaraderie, friendliness, and responsibility.

It was and is used by alchemists. This bird was associated with the Philosopher's Stone and the stages of transformation. The red stage is the feeding stage and the predecessor to rebirth and associated with the majestic pelican. The pelican also symbolizes making sacrifices to perfect one's inner self. In his book, The Birds in Alchemy, Adam McLean states:
"The alchemist must enter into a kind of sacrificial relationship with his inner being. He must nourish with his own soul forces, the developing spiritual embryo within."
This bird has been adopted by the Masons as a symbol used most notably in the Scottish Rite, but is said to have been seen in early Knights Templar Encampments (today known as Commanderies). Let us all remember the lessons of self-sacrifice of the Pelican that we may transform into a better man emblematically represented by the resurrection of the Phoenix as reminded by the 18° of the Scottish Rite.


1. Mackey, Albert G. Pelican. n.d. 

2. McLean, Adam. The Birds in Alchemy. 1979. 

3. Newell, Barry. Chapter of Rose Croix. October 28, 2012. 

4. Panek, Joe. The Pelican (As a Symbol). August 21, 2011. 

5. Pelican. n.d. 

6. Pike, Albert. "18°." In Morals & Dogma. 1871. 

7. Saunders, William. The Symbolism of the Pelican. n.d. 

8. Symbolic Pelican Meaning. n.d.

Friday, August 23, 2013

Sights and Places: Freemasons' Hall

It's been quite a while since I've posted anything from this series so I've come back with another example of beautiful architecture, the Freemasons' Hall in London, England. Its interior has been described as a "kaleidoscope of intensely-decorated corridors."

This building is located on Great Queen Street and serves as the headquarters of the United Grand Lodge of England as well as the principal meeting place for Masonic Lodges in London. The Grand Lodge has been located at this location since 1775, but this building is not the original and is in fact the third building.

In the early recorded years of Freemasonry, the Brethren didn't meet like we did today. Today most Lodges meet in buildings owned by the Masons and reserved strictly for their use, but in the early days this was not so. In the early years Lodges met either in private homes or in taverns where rooms could be rented out. Meeting in such public places required the transporting, and emplacing and displacing of Masonic paraphernalia. This led to the Brothers looking for establishing a permanent facility for Masonic use.

Although England leads Freemasonry with many firsts, the first Masonic building was actually built by French Freemasons in 1765 in Marseille. The first building in England was planned back in 1769 by the Premier Grand Lodge (Moderns) and after raising funds from its members purchased a plot of land on Great Queen Street. This site consisted of a tavern house fronting the street with a garden behind leading to a second house. Thomas Sandby won a competition to design the Freemasons' Hall which was built over the garden that linked the house and tavern. The newly built Freemasons' Hall is dedicated 23 May 1776, and was an important building, both for Masons and the public; as it was could be rented out for concerts, balls, and other such events for philanthropic societies such the Anti-Slavery Society and others.

In the 1820s, Sir John Soane, Grand Superintendent of Works, extensively remodeled the building. In the 1860s, Frederick Pepys Cockerell extended the building to the East and part of this façade still exists as part of the Connaught Rooms. In 1883 a fire damaged the building which would lead to its demolition and rebuilding in the 20th century.

In 1919 the Masonic Million Memorial Fund was established with the goal of rebuilding the Freemasons' Hall as a memorial those Masons who lost their lives on active service in WWI. 1925 was a busy year for the British Masons as the competition was launched and won by the partnership of Henry Victor Ashley and F. Winton Newman, but also the Most Worshipful Grand Master held a lunch where around 7,250 Brothers attended a lunch and raised over £825,000 for the building fund. The work on the building started in 1927 after the cornerstone laying on the 14th of July and continued into 1933, and stands as one of the finest examples Art Deco in England. On 19 July 1933 over 5,000 Masons congregated at the new Hall and the building was dedicated to Masonic service by the Grand Master, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught. It was originally known as the Masonic Peace Memorial, but was changed to Freemasons' Hall at the outbreak of WWII.

This building covers 2.25 acres and contains the Grand Temple, 21 Lodge rooms, a Library and Museum, various administrative offices, storage spaces, archives, and a Masonic shop. The Grand Temple is the meeting place for the Grand Lodge as well as the Grand Chapter (Royal Arch Masons), Provincial Grand Lodges, and other Masonic and non-Masonic organizations. Before one even enters the Grand Temple, he is met with an imposing set of Bronze doors, each weighing 1.25 tons that are decorated with scenes relating to the building of King Solomon's Temple. These doors lead into a room that is 123-ft long, 90-ft wide, and 62-ft high that can seat up to 1,700 people. Mosaic work covers the ceiling and in the corners there are depicted the Arms of Prince Arthur and the four cardinal virtues: Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude, and Justice. This room houses a large pipe organ that was built by Henry Willis & Sons, a leading British organ builder. This room is open to the public and is something to be seen on tours given throughout the Freemasons' Hall.

The numerous Lodge rooms are highly ornate and no two are identical in design. Some of the more notable rooms are Temples #1, #10, #17, and #23. Temple #1 contains portraits of former Grand Masters and can seat up to 600 people. Temple #10, located beneath the clock tower, is designed with a combination of classic Art Deco with Egyptian designs, and is home to an impressive domed ceiling. Temple #17 is very ornate with a large ante-room that is used by most ancient Lodges as well as 3 of the remaining 4 Lodges that founded the 1717 Grand Lodge. Temple #23 is the smallest of the Lodge rooms, allowing only 25 people to be seated, and contains portraits of former Grand Secretaries. There isn't too many labeled pictures to be found as the Lodge rooms are usually not for public tours as they are in constant use.

Also housed in this Hall is the Library and Museum of Freemasonry which is a library, archive and registered museum in central London covering Freemasonry. The Library and Museum is also a Charitable Trust that is registered with the Charity Commission. The Museum houses a collection of objects with Masonic designs and some of these items have belonged to famous Freemasons such as King Edward VII and Winston Churchill. The Museum also contains the most comprehensive collections of friendly societies (like the Oddfellows) material in the UK. The Library is located on the 1st floor of the Freemasons' Hall and is home to a very comprehensive collection of printed books and manuscripts over everything concerning Freemasonry in England, but also contains a great deal of material on Freemasonry, friendly societies, esoteric, and mystical traditions from around the world. This is also open to the general public during the hours of 10am-5pm (M-F).

Like the original Masonic Hall, the Freemasons' Hall is also used for public events such as concerts and musical events as well as filming for TV shows and movies.

This is definitely on one of one of the places I can't wait to visit. I think going here, I would outdo the amount of pictures taken versus my trips to Philly and Italy in 2011.


1. Freemasons' Hall. n.d. 

2. Freemasons' Hall, London. n.d.'_Hall,_London. 

3. Freemasons’ Hall, London: A History. n.d. 

4. History of Freemasons' Hall. n.d. 

5. Ian. Freemasons Hall ~ an Art Deco masterpiece in central London. February 14, 2013. 

6. Masonic Temple. n.d. 

7. Tours of Freemasons’ Hall. n.d. 

8. Wolff, Stephanie. The Freemasons Hall, home of The United Grand Lodge of England: Uncovering a few hidden treasures. November 18, 2010.

Saturday, August 17, 2013

Goodbye Cabin

These last couple of weeks I've been busy with military training, but I must stop to make a sad me at least. My father called me today to inform me that my family's cabin has burned down in the Elk Creek Complex Fire.

My grandfather built this cabin and it has become an icon of my family that has been a home away from home for 4 generations of my family. I have so many fond memories from this place and it saddens me to see that it could not be saved.

This cabin was a sanctuary for me. As a child I always looked forward to going to the cabin for the summer and, when I was old enough, to go hunting in the Fall for deer. This cabin rested on the hillside just a short distance from Anderson Ranch Dam (Fall Creek side) and in the summertime, we'd always take my grandfather's pontoon boat out on the reservoir for Kokane fishing. A short drive we could go find some amazing sites. After my first deployment to Iraq, the Cabin was one of the first places I visited after making it back to Idaho. My dad and I drove all night through a nice little snowstorm to make it there. We unpacked and I laid down and slept for 16-hours straight. This place was one of serenity. It echoed peace and tranquility, and I have so many wonderful memories of this place that I could write forever. The shortest thing to say is that it was a symbol of my childhood and now it's gone. All that remains is my memories.

From here I don't know what will happen to the property, but I hope my grandfather decides to keep it in the family so we can rebuild.

Thursday, August 15, 2013

The Mystic Art

By Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton

The world may rail at Masonry, 
And scoff at Square and Line, 
We'll follow with complacency 
The Master's great Design. 

A King can make a gartered Knight, 
And breathe away another, 
But he, with all his skill and might, 
Can never make a Brother. 

This power alone, thou Mystic Art, 
Freemasonry, is thine; 
The power to tame the savage heart 
With brother-love divine!

Monday, August 5, 2013

Templar Symbols

I haven't posted an article on Templary, Masonic or Crusader, in a while so I thought I'd get one out. Like many organizations, the Templars were known to employ a variety of symbols for various purposes such as official seals, shield ornamentation, and gravestones, but there never existed a single symbol that was used during the entire existence of the medieval order.

The most common symbols used at various stages were the Red Cross, the Beauceant, Agnus Dei, and the image of two knights upon a single horse. Some lesser-known symbols that were used by the Provincial Masters included the star, dove, lion, crosses, and the fleurs-de-lis. Templar graves could be seen engraved with swords and the cavalry cross. At Chinon and Domme, where the Templars were imprisoned, there was seen graffiti carved into the walls, one such carving in Chinon was a hand with a heart superimposed on its palm.

The most popular symbol image associated with the medieval Knights Templar is the image of two knights upon one horse. This symbol was used by many Grand Masters as one of their seals with minor variations through the successive line of Grand Masters; starting around 1167 and lasting until around 1298. The official seal of the Grand Master was closely guarded in the Treasury under the protection of the Commander of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and could only be accessed by a select few.

Like many things associated with the Templars, this symbol mystifies them and since their downfall, there have been many theories as to the meaning of it. Some military experts believe it is to emblematically represent what is seen today as the "buddy system" where soldiers, or knights in their case, would operate in pairs. Some believe this symbol goes back much farther to ancient Sumeria which was thought to represent a tactical device during battle, but also symbolic of duality and balance. This may be the reason the Templars adopted it, to represent their dual function as both warriors and monks. Others theorize that it originated with the birth and initial poverty of the Templar Order, but this would fly in the face of the Rule of the Order which established the number of horses allocated to knights (according to their rank and position) and which also prohibited the sharing of the same horse.

The next most prominent symbol for the Knights Templar is the Red Cross, which would have been emblazoned upon the mantle (color varied depending on class). The Red Cross was not an ornament of the Templars until 1147 when Pope Eugenius III granted them that privilege via papal bull. There was an exact design, but the most common cross used was the cross pattee (a variation of the Greek cross).

As I discussed in my articles "The Crown and the Cross" and "Crosses", the cross is an ancient symbol that long preceded its use by the Christian religion:
It has been found in ancient Africa, the Far East, Assyria, Phoenicia, India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Scandinavia, and Mesoamerica/Pre-Columbian America. To these ancient cultures, the cross represented the Sun or has been a symbol of Earth and nature with the number Four representing the Cardinal directions, the changing seasons, the four winds, the quarters of the moon, and the alchemical elements. Like the crown does, the cross may also emblematically represent the union of Heaven and Earth. The number four also reminds us of the Four Evangelists and their Gospels. By it are we reminded of time and the delineation of seasons, as it was on the Fourth Day that God put lights in the firmament to separate light from darkness, to mark days, and to outline the passing of seasons and time.
For the Templar, the red cross was a symbol of martyrdom to remind them of Christ.

Primarily found in England and parts of France, the Lamb of God (or Agnus Dei) was used on seals, but was not uniquely used by the Knights Templar. The Agnus Dei is often depicted as a haloed lamb cocking its leg so as to hold either a cross or flag, but there have been several variations since it first was used which was around 1241. Its origins are debated, like most symbols, but many believe that it started around the 9th Century AD since no evidence exists prior to that time of its use although this is contested as it was primarily used first in Rome and thus would most likely stem from some pagan use.

The Agnus Dei is symbolic of the martyred Christ and is referenced in the 29th Verse of the First Chapter of the Book of John wherein it is written "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." In Masonry, we are reminded that the lamb has long been an emblem of innocence.

Another famous symbol would be the Beauceant which I discussed back in 2012. The Beauceant was the standard of the Knights Templar and still used by the Masonic Knights Templar. The Beauceant consisted of a black sec¬tion above a white one. The etymology of "Beauceant" is not known, an unknown pilgrim around the 12th or 13th century, while visiting Jerusalem, stated:
When they go to war, a standard of two colors called 'balzaus' is borne before them.
The colors of the Beauceant also remind us to be good and true to our friends and terrify the
enemies of Christ. The black section can also depict the sins of the secular world that the Templar knights had chosen to leave while the second section was white depicting the purity that the order offered them, a sort of transformation of darkness to light. To symbolize duality through the colors of black and white is quite ancient as most cultures see white and black as symbolic of good and evil. It has also been used as a comparison between the physical and spiritual world, male and female, and the sky and the earth.

The Beauceant was a rallying point during battles so they could easily regroup when separated. Knights were also not allowed to retreat or stop fighting while the Beauceant was flying. As the Beauceant was such an important symbol that the Marshall would select a group of Templars to protect it, to be led by the Confanonier, or Standard Bearer. The Standard Bearer is still an officer in the modern Masonic Templars and whose duty it is to protect the Standards of our Order. Historically the duties of the Standard Bearer included being the paymaster and ensuring the equipment (to include the horses) was kept in working order. It should be noted that although he was referred to as the Standard Bearer he never carried the banner, but led the procession which carried and protected it.

The Lion is a fairly obvious symbol for any Christian order as the lion is the king of the beasts so too is Christ the King of Kings. It was used as the sigil of the Tribe of Judah. It was used by warriors and noblemen alike as a symbol of their strength and authority. Symbolically the lion represents courage, valor, power, royalty, dignity, justice, wisdom, and ferocity. The lion while the ancients saw the lion as a "solar animal", but the lion is primarily a nocturnal hunter; with this, we see the lion as a symbol of balance between night and day, darkness and light. The Templars may have also chosen this symbol as a remembrance of those words spoken by their early champion, Bernard of Clairvaux, who described them as ferocious lions.

Found on some seals of the Templar Order, the Dove is a well-known Christian icon. The dove symbolizes peace as well as the Holy Spirit.

The Cavalry Cross, or Stepped Cross, is a Latin cross surmounted on a base of 3-steps. Cavalry is the Latin name of the Aramaic word, Golgotha, which we learn from Biblical history, is the place of a skull as there is a skull-like appearance on the hillside and it was the place where Christ was crucified. The 3-steps while were said to represent the hill, were also symbolic of the virtues: Faith, Hope, and Love (or Charity). Along with being used as gravestones, the places where Templars were imprisoned had Cavalry Crosses etched into the prison cells.

The Fleur-de-lis, or “lily flower”, is a stylized lily used as a decorative design or symbol. It was first used around the 11th century and then continued to spread in use throughout the Middle Ages. The lily from the retired state of its pedals symbolizes that it is a symbol of peace and purity, but is also said to symbolize light, faith, wisdom, and chivalry. In Christianity, the lily was said to represent the Virgin Mary and there appear many pieces of art with Mary carrying the lily. Some believe that the fleur-de-lis represents the Holy Trinity.

The carving of hands with a heart superimposed on a palm is a peculiar symbol found in the cells of Templars. This symbol is symbolic of charity as well as mercy. This symbol was also used by John Calvin and with it this motto: “My heart I offer to you LORD, promptly and sincerely." It has been used in recent times by such groups as the Shakers and the Odd Fellows.

When reading through the Knights Templar Encyclopedia by Karen Ralls, I came upon the entry of "Abraxas" which just had a quick note for the reader to go to the section on Symbols. As I perused that section it talked about that the symbol of Abraxas is displayed on "Templar Grand Master's seal in the Archives Nationales in Paris, which was used in a French charter in 1214." The seal displays a figure that is Chimera-like and portrays a male warrior with a roosters head, human arms, and snakes as legs, who carries a shield and a whip; and bears the words "Secretum Templi". This particular description of Abraxas was known as Anguipede which means "snake-foot". It is interesting to note that this seal was not used for particularly significant Templar documents, but can be found on ordinary, seemingly unimpressive, historical records like those dating from 1214.

Abraxas (Greek: ΑΒΡΑΞΑΣ) is a god written about in Gnostic texts and may also be known as Abrasax (as there is thought to have been a mistranslation from Greek to Latin). Carl Jung in his writings on the Seven Sermons to the Dead stated that Abraxas was a god higher than Jehovah. He is said to be the father of all things, "the power above all and the First Principle," and the ruler of 365 heavens. It is said that Abraxas created Nuos and Logos which led to Providence, Virtue, and Wisdom which gave rise to Principalities and Powers, and from "from these infinite productions and emissions of angels." It is these angels who govern the 365 heavens which were said to include the Judeo-Christian God, Jehovah, which followers of Basilides denied of being a god, but rather an angel. This obviously was not a very popular belief in the 2nd century and Basilides is considered a heretic and damned by many historical Roman Catholic figures.

Some have speculated that the imagery of the Anguipede represents emanations of this being which are as follows:
The human body is displayed as it is written that God created man in his own image. The snakes represent the two great supports of man given by God, Nous (mind, intellect) and Logos (reason and judgment). The cock (rooster), being the creature who traditionally greets the golden dawn, is an emblem of foresight and vigilance. He carries the shield of wisdom and the whip or flail is said to be the "whip of Helios" (Abraxas is associated with the Sun) which represents dynamism or strength/power.
No one knows the origins of Abraxas and the relics associated with him. Some believe that it originated with a man named Basilides (an Alexandrian mystic) in the 2nd Century AD, but even then it cannot be proven and is also hypothesized that it was transmitted to him from another source, yet unknown to us in modern times. Abraxas was also referred to as the Great Archon, the Lord Creator, Almighty God, and Greatest God.

Many have attempted to guess as to the reason the Templars would use such an image, but without proper records and evidence, it all falls into the realm of speculation. Historical writings and modern scholars have drawn parallels between Abraxas and Mithras of Persia as well as beliefs found in Hinduism. It is possible that the Templars were introduced to Abraxas through their time in the Middle East, but again, without hard evidence, we can only imagine. Although it is an interesting symbol, the use of this seal does not mean that the Templar Order was a Gnostic one.

There are many interesting symbols used by the ancient Templars. Some of these symbols are still seen or used today in Masonic orders that have similar names to commemorate the deeds of these great men. It is a tragedy that too little of the Templars remains for analysis and study. The symbols we know seem to resonate with their dual personality of being men of the cloth, of God, and being warriors feared on the battlefield. While not conclusive, it leads to a belief of influence by Gnostic and Eastern beliefs that the Templars may have encountered in their travels.


1. A Brief History of the Medieval Knights Templar. n.d. 

2. Abraxas. n.d. 

3. Agnus Dei. n.d. 

4. Doves as Symbols. n.d. 

5. Fleur-de-lis. n.d. 

6. Fleur-de-lis. n.d. 

7. Fleur-de-lis Meaning. August 14, 2012. 

8. Heart in Hand. n.d. 

9. Heart in Hand. June 21, 2011. 

10. "John 1:29." In Holy Bible, KJV. n.d. 

11. King, Charles W. The Abraxas Religion. 1887. 

12. Knights Templar. n.d. 

13. Knights Templar Seal. n.d. 

14. Lion as a Templar Symbol. n.d. 

15. McMahon, Tony. Abraxas and the Templars. November 10, 2010. 

16. Napier, Gordon. Templar Symbolism. n.d. 

17. Newell, Barry. Banners of Royal Arch Masonry. October 10, 2012. 

18. Newell, Barry. Symbols of Royal Arch Masonry, Part 2. June 8, 2012. 

19. Newell, Barry. The Crown and the Cross. September 9, 2012. 

20. Ralls, Karen. Knights Templar Encyclopedia. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page books, 2007. 

21. Symbolic Meaning of Lions. n.d. 

22. The Calvary Cross. n.d. 

23. The Chimera Androgyne: The Esoteric Mystique of Baphomet and Abraxas (Part 2). July 12, 2011. 

24. The Templars & Gnosticism. n.d. 

25. Lamb of God. n.d.