Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Goodbye 2019

They say it's darkest before the dawn. 2018 was a very dark time in my life and 2019 was definitely a new dawn. Some of the highlights of my year were: 
  • helping start Idaho College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF); 
  • and, at the 2019 SRICF High Council meeting, being advanced to the Third Order and received the VIII° and IX°, the highest honor of my Masonic career.

As 2019 draws to a close, I'm spending the night with old friends and partying in the New Year. I look forward to 2020 with a lot of Masonic Rosicrucianism, lots of York Rite Masonry (particularly Cryptic Masonry), and a lot of work with the Committee on Masonic Research and Education.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Merry Christmas

To all of my family, friends, Brothers, Companions, Sir Knights, Companion Knights, Fellows, Knights Companion, Cousins, Knights, and Fratres around the world:

Merry Christmas and a Happy Holidays!!

Today we celebrate the birth of the Logos Incarnate, the Blessed Redeemer, and the True Light of the World.

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Adam and Eve

Today is Christmas Eve and the Feast Day of Adam and Eve, who were the first man and woman that lived in the Garden of Eden before being expelled after being tricked into eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

For several centuries, this Feast Day was celebrated with a drama called Paradise Play that retold the story of mankind from the creation of Adam and Eve to the Birth of Jesus Christ. It is very appropriate to celebrate Adam and Eve on the day before Christmas as it brings Advent into a full circle; Adam and Eve condemned mankind with Original Sin and the promise of salvation of mankind marked by Christ's birth and eventual sacrifice on Calvary.

Christmas Eve came about, as the start of the commemorations of the birth of Jesus the Nazarene, due in part to the Christian liturgical day starting as sunset, a practice inherited from Jewish traditions generally and specifically from the Book of Genesis where it’s written: "And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day."

The nativity of Jesus or the birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. The Christmas Story starts around taxation because not even the Savior was exempt from government taxation. During the reign of Caesar Augustus, a degree was issued to hold a census of the entire Roman Empire. In the Roman-controlled Judah, there was a man named Joseph who was pledged to be married to a woman named Mary. While still a virgin, Mary was impregnated by the Holy Spirit. Joseph being an honorable man did want to expose her to public disgrace and was informed by the archangel Gabriel, the messenger of God, that the baby would be named Jesus because he would save the people from the world. Joseph and Mary traveled to the town of David as Joseph belonged to the house and line of David and the census required one to be registered in their hometown. While in Bethlehem, Mary went into labor and gave birth to Jesus Christ. Because no rooms were available, they had to stay in a manger, today we would call it a stable.

The three Magi were visited by an angel who declared the Messiah had been born and these three traveled to Bethlehem, following a star in the sky said to rest over where Jesus was born. On there, they came to King Herod and informed them of what they saw from the angels of the Lord. Herod ordered the Magi to go onto Bethlehem to find the Savior so he could worship him as well, but intended to kill the infant Christ. When they found the baby Jesus, they praised his glory and bestowed the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. God intervened and through his angels gave warning to both the Magi and the Holy Family which allowed them to escape into Egypt until the death of Herod.

To end this, I’d like to quote James Allan Francis and say “Nineteen wide centuries have come and gone and today He is the centerpiece of the human race and the leader of the column of progress. I am far within the mark when I say that all the armies that ever marched, and all the navies that ever were built, and all the parliaments that ever sat, all the kings that ever reigned, put together have not affected the life of man upon this earth as powerfully as has that One Solitary Life.”

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Templar Biography: Thibaud Gaudin

The second to last of the medieval Knights Templar was Thibaud Gaudin who was known for his great piety, for attempting to reorganize the order, and for serving less than a year.

Born sometime in 1229 to a noble family around the Chartres or Blois area of France (SW of Paris), but the majority of his life is a mystery and there exists little to no extant records.

By 1260, he was in the Knights Templar because in that year he was taken prisoner during an attack on Tiberias. During his Templar career, he also served as Turcopolier and then Preceptor of Acre. `In 1279, Gaudin was the Commander of the Land of Jerusalem, which is the fourth highest-ranking member of the order and is also the Treasurer.

He took part in the defense of Acre in 1291 where Guillaume de Beaujeu, his predecessor died. When it was clear that Acre was going to fall to the Saracens, Gaudin was put on a boat for Sidon; Acre lies south of Tyre and Sidon is north of Tyre. In August of 1291 in Sidon, Gaudin was elected as Grand Master of the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon. In October of 1291, with a larger convocation gathered, the knights reaffirmed the Gaudin's election, but also elected Jacques DeMolay as Marshal.

After the fall of Acre and the approach of the Saracens on Sidon, Gaudin went to Cyprus to gather more reinforcements. With the decline of fortunes in the Middle East, Gaudin tried to reorganize the order, but was busied with helping protect the Kingdom of Armenia. It is believed that the job was too much for him because on April 16, 1292, he died of exhaustion. Of all things, he is remembered for his great piety which earned him the nickname of "Gaudin Monk."


1. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Thibaud Gaudin. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/thibaud-gaudin-eng.php 

2. Knights Templar Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved from Medieval Life and Times: http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/crusades/knights-templar-timeline.htm 

3. Thibaud Gaudin. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thibaud_Gaudin

4. Napier, G. (2014). Pocket A-Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press.

Sunday, December 8, 2019

The Color Purple

While blue is the color most associated with Ancient Craft Masonry, the color purple comes up right behind. Purple epitomizes royalty, and particularly King Solomon and Hiram of Tyre who is central in the legend of Ancient Craft Masonry which includes the Blue Lodge, Royal Arch Masonry, Cryptic Masonry, and why it is used by Grand Lodge officers in their collars and aprons.

The color purple is the intermediate between the colors blue and red and is sometimes called violet or mauve. It is the major color that occurs the least frequently in nature and was the first color to be synthesized. Purple is also the most powerful wavelength of the visible wavelengths of electromagnetic energy and is the hardest color for the eye to discriminate.

The word "purple" is etymologically rooted in the Old English word "purpul" which came from the Latin "purpura" which in turn came from the Greek word "πορφύρα" or porphura. The first use of the word "purple" is in 975 AD in England.

The color purple is associated with monarchs because it was so rare and so expensive to produce that only rulers could afford to purchase it; it is also associated with wisdom, dignity, grandeur, rarity, romance, penitence, magic, the feminine, mystery, and piety as well as vanity, decadence, and extravagance.

The original dye used to make purple came from the city of Tyre, which is now in modern-day Lebanon, sometime around 1900 BC. The dye was made from small mollusks, called the spiny dye-murex snail, that was found in the Tyrian region of the Mediterranean. It took 9,000 or more of these mollusks to produce one gram of Tyrian purple. The snail's shell would be cracked open, the snail removed and soaked, a tiny gland removed, and the gland's juices extracted and then left in the sun. The sun would turn the juice to white then to yellow-green then green than violet and then dark red. The process had to be stopped just right to get the desired purple color. In recent years, the process was recreated, and to make an ounce would cost over $2,000.

According to myth, Melqart, the guardian god of Tyre, and a nymph named Tyrus were walking on a beach when Heracles' dog bit into a mollusk's shell and its mouth turned purple. Tyrus asked Heracles to make her a garment of purple and thus Tyrian purple was created/discovered. Melqart is believed to be the equivalent of Heracles who is also known as Hercules.

Early on, the color purple was worn by the rulers of Rome, Greece, Egypt, and Persia. Because these leaders were often deified by their subjects, the color purple came to represent divinity and holiness. After the fall of the Roman Empire, it was used by the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire then to other dynasties and kingdoms. It is also used by Bishops in a number of Christian churches and by professors of European universities.

Purple was also used by the Polynesians, the Chinese, the Japanese, Mayans, and Aztecs. In these other regions of the world the color purple was made from sea urchins, other types of snail, or the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum) which grows in Mexico; most of these other dyes though did not have the longevity of Tyrian purple.

The use of purple by royalty waned after the Byzantine Empire fell in 1453, but was still used by some monarchs. During Elizabethan England, the color was regulated so much that only the Royal Family could wear it. In 1856, an English chemist named William Henry Perkin created, by accident, a synthetic purple compound while attempting to create an anti-malaria drug. He patented the dye and made a fortune from it.


1. Andrews, E. (2018, August 22). Why is purple considered the color of royalty? Retrieved from History Channel: https://www.history.com/news/why-is-purple-considered-the-color-of-royalty 

2. Barbieri, A. (2015, March 12). The Invention of the Colour Purple. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/mar/12/the-invention-of-the-colour-purple 

3. Bourn, J. (2011, January 5). Color Meaning: Meaning of the Color Purple. Retrieved from Bourn Creative: https://www.bourncreative.com/meaning-of-the-color-purple/ 

4. Colours in Freemasonry. (n.d.). Retrieved from Euclid Lodge No.158: http://euclidlodge158.com/documents/COLOURSINFREEMASONRY.pdf 

5. Kingsbury, H. A. (1919, July). Significance of Masonic Colors. Retrieved from Masonic Dictionary: http://www.masonicdictionary.com/colors.html 

6. Melina, R. (2011, June 03). Why Is the Color Purple Associated With Royalty? Retrieved from Live Science: https://www.livescience.com/33324-purple-royal-color.html 

7. Olesen, J. (n.d.). Purple Color Meaning - The Color Purple. Retrieved from Color Meanings: https://www.color-meanings.com/purple-color-meaning-the-color-purple/ 

8. Purple. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple 

9. Shroeder, J. (n.d.). Color Symbolism and Freemasonry. Retrieved from The Masonic Trowel: http://www.themasonictrowel.com/Articles/Symbolism/general_files/color_symbolism_and_freemasonry.htm 

10. The Masonic Symbolism of Color. (n.d.). Retrieved from Freemason Information: http://freemasoninformation.com/masonic-education/books/the-beginning-of-masonry/the-masonic-symbolism-of-color/ 

11. The Meanings of Purple. (n.d.). Retrieved from Color Matters: https://www.colormatters.com/the-meanings-of-colors/purple

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Josiah Drummond

There are a number of famous Masons that one can read about: William Preston who contributed greatly to Masonic ritual and research, John Theophilus Desaguliers who is considered the Father of modern Speculative Freemasonry, Thomas Smith-Webb who is referred to as the Father of the American Rite, and Albert Pike who revised the ritual of the Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the USA and later served as the Sovereign Grand Commander. Within the York Rite, we can look at such men as Jeremy Ladd-Cross who is known as the Father of the Cryptic Rite, and Ephraim A. Kirby who was the first General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the US. However, not much is ever discussed about Josiah Drummond. This distinguished Brother, among other accomplishments, would serve the Craft as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, Provincial Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States for the Royal Order of Scotland, and the first General Grand Master of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.

Josiah Drummond was born on August 30, 1827, in Winslow, ME. He attended Vassalboro Academy and graduated from Colby College in 1846. He practiced law in the state and was active in state politics where is served as Speaker of the Main House of Representatives, State Senator, and Attorney General for Maine. Outside of politics and law, he served as Director of Maine Central Railroad and Union Mutual Life Insurance Company. He also served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at Colby College from 1890-1902.

He was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason in Waterville Lodge No.33 on January 1, 1849, in Waterville, ME. Eleven years later, at the age of 33, he was elected as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine and served until 1862. He served as Most Excellent Grand High Priest of Royal Arch Masons of Maine in 1866 and Right Eminent Grand Commander of Knights Templar of Maine in 1878.

The Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite became divided by the mid-19th century into two camps known as the "Van Rensselaer Council" and the "Hays-Raymond Council". This divide came to an end in 1867 when the Sovereign Grand Commanders from both sides resigned and both groups elected Josiah Drummond as their Sovereign Grand Commander. His governance is marked by the healing of the rifts and expanding the rite throughout the northern jurisdiction. He served as Sovereign Grand Commander until 1879.

While he presided over the Scottish Rite, he also served as the 11th General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; being elected and installed in 1871 and serving to 1874.

For several years, starting in 1873, there had been an effort to create a national governing body for the Cryptic Rite, but the proverbial can kept being kicked down the road. It would not be until 1880 that the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons would be formed and Josiah Drummond would serve as the first Most Puissant General Grand Master. Many place the success of the 1880 convention on Josiah as the previous conventions had resulted in no significant end.

In addition to his efforts in the Scottish Rite, Albert Pike also founded the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States of the Royal Order of Scotland in 1877 and appointed Josiah Drummond as his Provincial Deputy Grand Master; the two Sovereign Grand Commanders serving as the top two officers seems appropriate for this body. Pike served as the Provincial Grand Master until his death in 1891 when Josiah Drummond took over as the second Provincial Grand Master.

Josiah was also involved with the Allied Masonic Degrees before the Grand Council was established in 1933 when it was still referred to as the "Sovereign College of Allied Masonic and Christian Degrees" before it became defunct. It is interesting to note that this Sovereign College conferred honorary academic degrees such as Doctor in Universal Masonry, Doctor in Masonic Law, Doctor in Masonic Letters, Doctor in Masonic Theology, and Bachelor of Masonic Law. Josiah Drummond was a recipient of the Doctor in Universal Masonry.

On October 25, 1902, in Portland, ME, at the age of 75, this truly distinguished Mason dropped forever the working tools of life. He has left an indelible mark upon American Freemasonry. To remember such a Mason, the Grand Lodge of Maine established the Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal in 1939 an award for those "whose outstanding proficiency in the knowledge of Freemasonry and distinguished service in the successful application of that knowledge for the advancement of the welfare of the Craft shall have rendered them worthy of such recognition and honor."


1. Bickle, A. (2016, July 16). Josiah Hayden Drummond. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Josiah-Drummond/6000000044031806361 

2. Denslow, W. R. (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Vol 1. Retrieved from Phoenix Masonry: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/10,000_famous_freemasons/Volume_1_A_to_D.htm 

3. General Grand Council not Contemplated. (1924, June). Retrieved from The Builder Magazine: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/the_builder_1924_june.htm 

4. Jackson, C. W. (n.d.). Historical Sketch. Retrieved from Grand Council of Allied Masonic Degrees, USA: http://www.amdusa.org/sketch.html 

5. Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal. (n.d.). Retrieved from Grand Lodge of Maine: https://www.mainemason.org/grand-lodge/drummond-medal/ 

6. Josiah Hayden Drummond Passes Away. (2016, October 25). Retrieved from Today in Masonic History: https://www.masonrytoday.com/index.php?new_month=10&new_day=25&new_year=2016 

7. Pace, T. C. (n.d.). A Brief History of the Allied Masonic Degrees. Retrieved from New Jersey Councils of the Allied Masonic Degrees: http://www.njamd.com/history/4578278471 

8. Past General Grand High Priests. (n.d.). Retrieved from General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International: http://www.ramint.org/pgghp.html 

9. Past Provincial Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Provincial Grand Lodge, USA: https://roosusa.org/past-pgms/ 

10. Shute, J. R. (1975). The Innovators. Retrieved from Grand College of Rites, USA: http://grandcollegeofrites.org/innovators/ 

11. Sovereign Grand Commanders. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history/sovereign-grand-commanders 

12. The History of the Scottish Rite. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history 

13. Weekly Decryption. (2018, January). Retrieved from General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International: https://www.crypticmasons.org/72-weekly-decryption/87-20180103 

14. Woodland, W. N. (n.d.). Some Ordo, Some Chao. Retrieved from Boston Lafayette Lodge of Perfection: https://www.scottishriteboston.net/en/page.php?id=160#.XZvwwEZKhPZ

Friday, November 29, 2019

Templar Biography: Pedro de Montaigu

Pedro de Montaigu (also known as Pierre de Montaigu, Peter de Montaigu, or Petrus de Monteacuto) was the 15th Grand Master of the medieval Knights Templar and presided over this knighthood for 14-years during the 5th and 6th Crusades. It was during his tenure that the relationship between the Knights Hospitallers and the Templars eased. He is remembered for his diplomatic prowess and for serving as an arbiter during various conflicts.

Montaigu was born sometime toward the end of the 12th century. It is unknown when he joined the Templars, but it is known that Montaigu served as Master of Provence and Aragon from 1211 until 1218.

He took part in the Siege of Damiette alongside Guillaume de Chartres, the Grand Master of the Order at the time. After the death of de Chartres in 1218, Montaigu was elected as Grand Master of the Templars. During his time as Grand Master, the Hospitallers were led by a Guerin de Montaigu who is thought to have been his brother.

The Sultans of Cairo and Damas united to defeat the Christians, but were repelled by an army composed of the Templars, Hospitallers, and the Teutonic Knights. The Sultan of Damas then tried to barter a truce with the Christians via the Templar Grand Master, but the Papal Legate, Pelage, refused to accept it so the truce fell through. Had this truce come to fruition, the Sultan had promised to return pieces of wood from the True Cross that was captured during the Battle of Hattin.

A truce finally came about in 1221 which allowed the Templars to send troops to Spain to assist in the Reconquista.

The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II attacked Templar and Hospitallier lands after they criticized him for attempting to steal the wealth of the Christian Levant and was, for a time, excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.

Montaigu died in January of 1232 from Apoplexy (cerebral hemorrhage). He was succeeded by Armand de Périgord.


1. Addison, C. G. (1842). The History of the Knights Templar. Retrieved from Sacred Texts: https://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/hkt/hkt09.htm 

2. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Pierre de Montaigu. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/pierre-montaigu-eng.php 

3. Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from Ordre Souverain et Militaire du Temple de Jérusalem: https://www.theknightstemplar.org/1942-2/ 

4. Hibbard, S. D. (2016, December 4). Pierre de Montaigu, 15th Templar Grand Master. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Pierre-de-Montaigu-15th-Templar-Grand-Master/6000000019310193146 

5. Napier, G. (2008). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press. 

6. Peire de Montagut. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peire_de_Montagut 

7. The Templar Grand Masters. (2010, April). Retrieved from Templar History: http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/04/the-templar-grand-masters/

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Happy Thanksgiving

I wish everyone has a wonderful Thanksgiving! I am thankful for my life and for my family who I am spending the day. I am thankful for servicemen and women who keep the peace. I am thankful for all of my Masonic Brothers whithersoever dispersed around the world.

Friday, November 22, 2019

The Rose Line

This article is a written timeline about the events/individuals leading up to the emergence of Rosicrucianism in the 17th century and the events/individuals that followed; I will also include individuals and will place a particular emphasis on Masonic Rosicrucianism. A timeline is a display of a list of events and helps us understand history by looking at them in a sequential or chronological format.

This timescale of a timeline is dependent on the events in the timeline. For example, looking at a timeline of evolution can be over millions of years, whereas a timeline for the September 11th attacks can take place over minutes. This timeline will go from the 14th century to the present day.

1378 AD
According to the Rosicrucian Manifestos, Christian Rosenkreutz was born in 1378 AD in the Germanic states.

1394 AD
At the age of 16, Rosenkreutz begins his pilgrimage which takes him through the Middle East and North Africa. It is on this journey that Rosenkreutz meetings wise men from the regions and learns their ancient knowledge. It is from this journey that some groups such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn that dates the Rosicrucian philosophy back to 46 AD and to a man named Ormus, an Alexandrian Gnostic Christian.

1402 AD
Rosenkreutz is believed to have returned to Germany from his travels.

1450 AD
The burial chamber of Christian Rosenkreutz is believed to have been built.

1483 AD
Martin Luther is born on November 10th in Eisleben, Saxony (Germany).

1484 AD
Christian Rosenkreutz dies.

1517 AD
Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses on October 31st in Wittenberg, Saxony, which sparked the Protestant Reformation.

1520-1600s AD
There were many wars fought that are immediately connected with the Reformation: 
  • Knights' Revolt (1522–1523)
  • German Peasants' War (1524–1526)
  • Wars of Kappel (1529–1531)
  • Münster rebellion (1534–1535)
  • Anabaptist riot (1535)
  • Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547)
  • Princes' Revolt (1552–1555)
  • French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)
  • Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
  • Cologne War (1583–1588)
  • Strasbourg Bishops' War (1592–1604)

1521 AD

Luther appears at the Diet before Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, to answer charges of heresy. By refusing to recant, he was declared a heretic and formally excommunicated by the Catholic Church by Pope Leo X.

1526 AD
Diet of Speyers which declared that the religion of a nation would be based upon the religion of the ruler. This Diet was repudiated in the 1529 Diet of Speyer.

1527 AD
John Dee is born in London. He became a well-known mathematician, astrologer, occultist, Rosicrucian, and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I of England.

1529 AD
The Second Diet of Speyers resulted in the protection of Catholics in Lutheran lands, but didn’t extend protection to Lutherans in Catholic lands 1546 AD.
Martin Luther dies in Eisleben.

1552 AD
Rudolf II was born on July 18th in Vienna. He would go on to serve as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1576 to 1612. Relevant to this article, his reign was marked by tolerance to Protestantism, alchemy, and Hermeticism.

1555 AD
The Peace of Augsburg is signed which grants toleration to Lutherans within the Holy Roman Empire using the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio" or "Whose region, his religion".

1561 AD
Francis Bacon is born on January 22, 1561. Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, would become a Rosicrucian, philosopher, scientist, author, Attorney General, and Lord Chancellor of England.

1568 AD

Michael Maier, a German physicist, Rosicrucian, and alchemist, is born in Rendsburg, Germany.

1574 AD
Robert Fludd, the English philosopher, physician, and mystic, is born on January 17, 1574, in Kent, England.

1586 AD
Johann Valentin Andreae is born on August 17th in the Duchy of Württemberg. He is thought to be the author behind the Rosicrucian Manifestos.

1596 AD
Elizabeth Stuart is born in Scotland. Elizabeth was the daughter of King James I and wife to Frederick V of the Palatinate.
Frederick V of the Palatinate is born in the Upper Palatinate (Germany).

1601 AD
Johann Valentin Andreae attends Tubingen University; his grandfather had served as Chancellor some years before. Over the next few years, Andreae gets involved with the Tübingen circle started by Tobias Hess (1568 - 1614). Other members of this group were Christoph Besold, Tobias Adami, Wilhelm Wense, Tomaso Campanella, and Abraham Holzel.

1604 AD
The tomb of Christian Rosenkreutz is said to have been discovered.

1608 AD
John Dee passes.

1612 AD
Rudolf II dies and Matthias of Austria is elected Holy Roman Emperor.

1614 AD
The Fama Fraternitatis is published in the Hesse-Kassel region of what is now Germany.

1615 AD
The Confessio Fraternitatis is published in Wilhelm Wessel in the Hesse-Kassel region of Germany.

1616 AD
The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz is published in Strasbourg (Germany). Many believe these Rosicrucian Manifestos were targeted at the Protestant Princes generally, but specifically to Frederick V of the Palatinate and Elizabeth Stuart who were married in 1613.

1617 AD
Elias Ashmole, an English Rosicrucian and Freemason, is born on May 23rd.

1618 AD
On May 23rd, Protestants throw two Catholic councilors out of a window in Prague. This event became known as the Defenestration of Prague. This event kicked off the Bohemian Revolt and the Thirty Years War.
In the "Pia et Utilissima Admonitio de Fratribus Rosae Crucis," Henrichus Neuhusius claims that Rosicrucians have fled to the East due to the political and religious instability.
The Mirror of the Wisdom of the Rosicrucians is published by Daniel Mogling under the pseudonym of Theophilus Schweighardt.

1620 AD
Battle of White Mountain occurs on November 8th which results in Protestant defeat. Frederick V is stripped of his titles and land. This was the first major battle of the Thirty Years War which dispersed German refugees all over Europe. One of the displaced was John Amos Comenius, a friend and follower of Andreae, who wandered through Northern Europe and was in England in 1641.

1622 AD

Michael Maier passes.

1626 AD
Francis Bacon passes.

1629 AD
The "Summum Bonum" is published by Robert Fludd.

1637 AD
Robert Fludd passes.

1648 AD
The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years War, was signed on October 24th in Münster and Osnabrück. It established the concepts of state sovereignty and self-determination; it stripped the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church of much of its authority in the politics of states.

1652 AD
Thomas Vaughan translates the Fama and Confessio to English.

1654 AD
Johann Valentin Andreae dies in Stuttgart on June 27th.

1660 AD
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, also known as the Royal Society, is founded on November 28th, 1660. Some believe that the Invisible College, mentioned in 17th-century German Rosicrucian pamphlets, was a precursor to the Royal Society.

1694 AD
A group of German mystics immigrated to Pennsylvania which some mark as the date that Rosicrucianism coming to America.

1719 AD
Georg von Welling published the "Opus Mago-Cabalisticum et Theologicum" in Frankfurt-am-Main.

1727 AD
Martinez de Pasqually was born in Grenoble, France, who was a Rosicrucian who was initiated into the Emanuel Swedenborg Rite and founded the Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus-Cohen de l'Univers (a precursor to Martinism).

1737 AD
Ramsay's Oration is delivered on March 21, 1737, and declares that Freemasonry came from the Knights of St. John. This Oration is credited with sparking the interest in creating many concordant bodies such as the Scottish Rite which includes the Chapter of Rose Croix (red cross or Rosicrucian).

1741 AD
The earliest records of Royal Order of Scotland, which confers the degrees of Heredom of Kilwinning and Knight of the Rosy Cross, are from 1741. The Knight of the Rosy Cross was established, according to legend, on St. John's Day in 1314.

1743 AD
The accepted date of the beginning of the degrees that would become the Scottish Rite in Paris and Bordeaux.

1747 AD
The "Aureum Vellus" is published which speaks of a "Society of the Golden Rosicrucians" who were inheritors of the Golden Fleece.

1750s AD
The Rite of Strict Observance is believed to have been formed some time in the early 1750s by Karl Gotthelf von Hund in Germany.
The Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross, a German Rosicrucian organization founded by Freemason and alchemist Hermann Fichtuld sometime in the 1750s, but some believe that it was started in 1710. One had to be a Master Mason to join. It conferred nine grades or degrees:
 - Juniorus
II° - Theoricus
III° - Practicus
IV° - Philosophus
V° - Adeptus Minor
VI° - Adeptus Major
VII° - Adeptus Exemptus
VIII° - Magister
IX° - Magus
This order's degrees and hierarchy were used in the formation of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The order spread through the Germanic states, Poland, Hungary, and Russia.

1763 AD
Willermoz founded the Souverain Chapitre des Chevaliers de L'Aigle Noir - Rose-Croix (Sovereign Chapter of the Knights of the "Black Eagle - Rose-Croix).

1766 AD
Rosicrucianism was banned by Imperial Decree within Austria.

1770s AD
The Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests (HRAKTP) was thought to have been founded between 1770 and 1780. The Nineteenth degree is called "Knight of Rosae Cross."

1776 AD
In the winter of 1778, at the request of Willermoz, a meeting called the Convent of Gaul was called to order to discuss the reform the Auvergne Province of the Rite of Strict Observance. This body changed its name to the Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte (Knights Beneficent of the Holy City) or CBCS.

1779 AD
The "Compass of the Wise" was published which contained alchemical and Rosicrucian material.

1782 AD
The Congress of Wilhelmsbad occurs in the Hesse-Kassel region of Germany; the same region where the Fama and Confessio were first publicly published. The Congress resulted in the merger of the Rite of Strict Observance with the CBCS.

1785 AD
"Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians" appears in Hamburg which contained alchemical illustrations and Rosicrucian teachings.

1801 AD
The first Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite was founded in Charleston, SC, on May 31, 1801.

1858 AD
The Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, also called the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, was founded in 1858 by Paschal Beverly Randolph, and claims to be the oldest Rosicrucian Order in the US.

1866 AD
The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA) is founded in 1866. It was originally named "Rosicrucian Society of England or Brethren of the Rosy cross."

1876 AD
The Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia (SRIS) is founded.
The Societas Rosicruciana in Canada (SRIC) was officially founded on September 19, 1876, by Col. McLeod Moore. Moore had been advanced to the IX° by Prince Rhodocanakis IX°, Supreme Magus of the Rosicrucian Society for the Kingdom of Greece, in July 1876. The Grecian Society seemed to not last long and died when the Prince died.

1879 AD
The SRIS granted a charter and the Pennsylvania College formed on December 27, 1879.

1880 AD
The SRIS granted a charter to New York College on April 9, 1880.
The Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF) was founded on April 21, 1880, in Philadephia, PA. It was originally named the Societas Rosicrucianae Republica Confoedera America and the governing body was styled "Grand High Council."
Massachusetts College was chartered on May 4, 1880.
The High Council of the SRRCA was consecrated on September 21, 1880.

1885 AD
The High Council of the "Rosicrucian Society of England or Brethren of the Rosy cross" changed its name to Societas Rosicrucian in Anglia by William Wynn Westcott, but was not fully used until 1889 when Westcott was Secretary-General of the High Council.

1888 AD
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was founded in 1888 by William Wynn Westcott, Samuel Liddell, MacGregor Mathers, and William Robert Woodman.

1909 AD
The Societas Rosicruciana in America was founded by Dr. George Winslow Plummer who seceded from the SRICF, dropped the requirement for one to be a Master Mason, and admitted women.
The Rosicrucian Fellowship was founded in 1909 by Max Heindel with the aim of publicly promulgating "the true Philosophy" of the Rosicrucians. 

1915 AD
The Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis was established in 1915 in New York City by Harvey Spencer Lewis, and is currently headquartered in San Jose, CA. 

The SRRCA changed its name to Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF) on January 17th, 1934. 

1989 AD
The Ancient Order of the Rosicrucians was started in 1989 by Daniel Wagner and is currently headquartered in Vienna, Austria.

2002 AD
The Societas Rosicruciana in Lusitania (SRIL) is founded on October 5th, 2002.
I am going to continue to update this timeline of Rosicrucianism as more information comes to my attention.


1. A Hermetic & Rosicrucian Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved from Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: https://www.golden-dawn.com/eu/displaycontent.aspx?pageid=71-#1800 

2. About Us. (n.d.). Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Canada: http://rosicrucians.ca/about-us/ 

3. Chronological list of groups. (n.d.). Retrieved from The American Rosicrucian Order: http://rosicruciansociety.com/Chronological-Timeline.html 

4. Dawkins, P. (n.d.). Secrets of the Rosy Cross. Retrieved from Francis Bacon Research Trust: https://www.fbrt.org.uk/pages/essays/Secrets_of_the_Rosy_Cross.pdf 

5. History of the Rosicrucian Society of England 1867. (n.d.). Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia: https://www.sria.uk.com/about-the-society/history-of-the-rosicrucian-society-of-england-1867/ 

6. Jackson, K. (2007). Beyond the Craft. Ian Allen Publishing. 

7. Lindez, D. (n.d.). Description of the Society. Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis: http://www.sricf.org/info.html 

8. Martin Luther. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from BIOGRAPHY: https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin-luther 

9. McIntosh, C. (1997). Rosicrucians: The History, Mythology, and Rituals of an Esoteric Order. San Francisco: Weiser Books. 

10. Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_Golden_and_Rosy_Cross 

11. Rosicrucianism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucianism 

12. Rosicrucians. (n.d.). Retrieved from InfoPlease: https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/religion/other/misc/rosicrucians 

13. Royal Society. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Society 

14. Societas Rosicruciana. (n.d.). Retrieved from The American Rosicrucian Order: http://rosicruciansociety.com/Societas-Rosicruciana.html 

15. The Rosicrucian Impulse: Magic, Mysticism, and Ritual. (n.d.). Retrieved from Order of the Rose and Cross: http://order.rosy-cross.org/node/86 

16. The Thirty Years' War. (n.d.). Retrieved from Timeline Index: http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/1422 

17. Thirty Years War. (n.d.). Retrieved from Encyclopedia: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/thirty-years-war 

18. Thirty Years’ War. (2009, November 9). Retrieved from History Channel: https://www.history.com/topics/reformation/thirty-years-war 

19. Thomas, S. (2008, January 1). Timeline of Thirty Years War. Retrieved from Balagan: https://balagan.info/timeline-of-thirty-years-war 

20. Yates, F. (2001). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. Routledge.