Sunday, December 1, 2019

Josiah Drummond

There are a number of famous Masons that one can read about: William Preston who contributed greatly to Masonic ritual and research, John Theophilus Desaguliers who is considered the Father of modern Speculative Freemasonry, Thomas Smith-Webb who is referred to as the Father of the American Rite, and Albert Pike who revised the ritual of the Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the USA and later served as the Sovereign Grand Commander. Within the York Rite, we can look at such men Jeremy Ladd-Cross who is known as the Father of the Cryptic Rite and Ephraim A. Kirby who was the first General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the US. However, not much is ever discussed about Josiah Drummond. This distinguished Brother, among other accomplishments, would serve the Craft as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, Provincial Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States for the Royal Order of Scotland, and the first General Grand Master of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.

Josiah Drummond was born on August 30, 1827, in Winslow, ME. He attended Vassalboro Academy and graduated from Colby College in 1846. He practiced law in the state and was active in state politics where is served as Speaker of the Main House of Representatives, State Senator, and Attorney General for Maine. Outside of politics and law, he served as Director of Maine Central Railroad and Union Mutual Life Insurance Company. He also served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at Colby College from 1890-1902.

He was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason in Waterville Lodge No.33 on January 1, 1849, in Waterville, ME. Eleven years later, at the age of 33, he was elected as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine and served until 1862. He served as Most Excellent Grand High Priest of Royal Arch Masons of Maine in 1866 and Right Eminent Grand Commander of Knights Templar of Maine in 1878.

The Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite became divided by the mid-19th century into two camps known as the "Van Rensselaer Council" and the "Hays-Raymond Council". This divide came to an end in 1867 when the Sovereign Grand Commanders from both sides resigned and both groups elected Josiah Drummond as their Sovereign Grand Commander. His governance is marked by the healing of the rifts and expanding the rite throughout the northern jurisdiction. He served as Sovereign Grand Commander until 1879.


While he presided over the Scottish Rite, he also served as the 11th General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; being elected and installed in 1871 and serving to 1874.

For several years, starting in 1873, there had been an effort to create a national governing body for the Cryptic Rite, but the proverbial can kept being kicked down the road. It would not be until 1880 that the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons would be formed and Josiah Drummond would serve as the first Most Puissant General Grand Master. Many place the success of the 1880 convention on Josiah as the previous conventions had resulted in no significant end.

In addition to his efforts in the Scottish Rite, Albert Pike also founded the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States of the Royal Order of Scotland in 1877 and appointed Josiah Drummond as his Provincial Deputy Grand Master; the two Sovereign Grand Commanders serving as the top two officers seems appropriate for this body. Pike served as the Provincial Grand Master until his death in 1891 when Josiah Drummond took over as the second Provincial Grand Master.

Josiah was also involved with the Allied Masonic Degrees before the Grand Council was established in 1933 when it was still referred to as the "Sovereign College of Allied Masonic and Christian Degrees" before it became defunct. It is interesting to note that this Sovereign College conferred honorary academic degrees such as Doctor in Universal Masonry, Doctor in Masonic Law, Doctor in Masonic Letters, Doctor in Masonic Theology, and Bachelor of Masonic Law. Josiah Drummond was a recipient of the Doctor in Universal Masonry.

On October 25, 1902, in Portland, ME, at the age of 75, this truly distinguished Mason dropped forever the working tools of life. He has left an indelible mark upon the American Freemasonry. To remember such a Mason, the Grand Lodge of Maine established the Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal in 1939 an award for those "whose outstanding proficiency in the knowledge of Freemasonry and distinguished service in the successful application of that knowledge for the advancement of the welfare of the Craft shall have rendered them worthy of such recognition and honor."

References

1. Bickle, A. (2016, July 16). Josiah Hayden Drummond. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Josiah-Drummond/6000000044031806361 

2. Denslow, W. R. (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Vol 1. Retrieved from Phoenix Masonry: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/10,000_famous_freemasons/Volume_1_A_to_D.htm 

3. General Grand Council not Contemplated. (1924, June). Retrieved from The Builder Magazine: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/the_builder_1924_june.htm 

4. Jackson, C. W. (n.d.). Historical Sketch. Retrieved from Grand Council of Allied Masonic Degrees, USA: http://www.amdusa.org/sketch.html 

5. Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal. (n.d.). Retrieved from Grand Lodge of Maine: https://www.mainemason.org/grand-lodge/drummond-medal/ 

6. Josiah Hayden Drummond Passes Away. (2016, October 25). Retrieved from Today in Masonic History: https://www.masonrytoday.com/index.php?new_month=10&new_day=25&new_year=2016 

7. Pace, T. C. (n.d.). A Brief History of the Allied Masonic Degrees. Retrieved from New Jersey Councils of the Allied Masonic Degrees: http://www.njamd.com/history/4578278471 

8. Past General Grand High Priests. (n.d.). Retrieved from General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International: http://www.ramint.org/pgghp.html 

9. Past Provincial Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Provincial Grand Lodge, USA: https://roosusa.org/past-pgms/ 

10. Shute, J. R. (1975). The Innovators. Retrieved from Grand College of Rites, USA: http://grandcollegeofrites.org/innovators/ 

11. Sovereign Grand Commanders. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history/sovereign-grand-commanders 

12. The History of the Scottish Rite. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history 

13. Weekly Decryption. (2018, January). Retrieved from General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International: https://www.crypticmasons.org/72-weekly-decryption/87-20180103 

14. Woodland, W. N. (n.d.). Some Ordo, Some Chao. Retrieved from Boston Lafayette Lodge of Perfection: https://www.scottishriteboston.net/en/page.php?id=160#.XZvwwEZKhPZ

Friday, November 29, 2019

Templar Biography: Pedro de Montaigu

Pedro de Montaigu (also known as Pierre de Montaigu, Peter de Montaigu, or Petrus de Monteacuto) was the 15th Grand Master of the medieval Knights Templar and presided over this knighthood for 14-years during the 5th and 6th Crusades. It was during his tenure that the relationship between the Knights Hospitalliers and the Templars eased. He is remembered for his diplomatic prowess and serving as an arbiter during various conflicts.

Montaigu was born sometime toward the end of the 12th century. It is unknown when he joined the Templars, but it is known that Montaigu served as Master of Provence and Aragon from 1211 until 1218.

He took part in the Siege of Damiette alongside Guillaume de Chartres, the Grand Master of the Order at the time. After the death of de Chartres in 1218, Montaigu was elected as Grand Master of the Templars. During his time as Grand Master, the Hospitalliers were led by a Guerin de Montaigu who is thought to have been his brother.

The Sultans of Cairo and Damas united to defeat the Christians, but was repelled by an army composed of the Templars, Hospitalliers, and the Teutonic Knights. The Sultan of Damas then tried to barter a truce with the Christians via the Templar Grand Master, but the Papal Legate, Pelage, refused to accept it so the truce fell through. Had this truce come to fruition, the Sultan had promised to return pieces of wood from the True Cross that was captured during the Battle of Hattin.

A truce finally came about in 1221 which allowed the Templars to send troops to Spain to assist in the Reconquista.

The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II attacked Templar and Hospitallier lands after they criticized him for attempting to steal the wealth of the Christian Levant and was, for a time, excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.

Montaigu died in January of 1232 from Apoplexy (cerebral hemorrhage). He was succeeded by Armand de Périgord.

References

1. Addison, C. G. (1842). The History of the Knights Templar. Retrieved from Sacred Texts: https://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/hkt/hkt09.htm 

2. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Pierre de Montaigu. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/pierre-montaigu-eng.php 

3. Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from Ordre Souverain et Militaire du Temple de Jérusalem: https://www.theknightstemplar.org/1942-2/ 

4. Hibbard, S. D. (2016, December 4). Pierre de Montaigu, 15th Templar Grand Master. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Pierre-de-Montaigu-15th-Templar-Grand-Master/6000000019310193146 

5. Napier, G. (2008). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press. 

6. Peire de Montagut. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peire_de_Montagut 

7. The Templar Grand Masters. (2010, April). Retrieved from Templar History: http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/04/the-templar-grand-masters/

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Happy Thanksgiving

I wish everyone has a wonderful Thanksgiving! I am thankful for my life and for my family who I am spending the day with. I am thankful for servicemen and women who keep the peace. I am thankful for all of my Masonic Brothers withersoever dispersed around the world.


Friday, November 22, 2019

The Rose Line

This article is a written timeline about the events/individuals leading up to the emergence of Rosicrucianism in the 17th century and the events/individuals that followed; I will also include individuals and will place a particular emphasis on Masonic Rosicrucianism. A timeline is a display of a list of events and helps us understand history by looking at them in a sequential or chronological format.

This timescale of a timeline is dependent on the events in the timeline. For example, looking at a timeline of evolution can be over millions of years, whereas a timeline for the September 11th attacks can take place over minutes. This timeline will go from the 14th century to the present day.



1378 AD

According to the Rosicrucian Manifestos, Christian Rosenkreutz was born in 1378 AD in the Germanic states.

1394 AD
At the age of 16, Rosenkreutz begins his pilgrimage which takes him through the Middle East and North Africa. It is on this journey that Rosenkreutz meetings wise men from the regions and learns their ancient knowledge. It is from this journey that some groups such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn that dates the Rosicrucian philosophy back to 46 AD and to a man named Ormus, an Alexandrian Gnostic Christian.

1402 AD
Rosenkreutz is believed to have returned to Germany from his travels.

1450 AD

The burial chamber of Christian Rosenkreutz is believed to have been built.

1483 AD

Martin Luther is born on November 10th in Eisleben, Saxony (Germany).

1484 AD
Christian Rosenkreutz dies.

1517 AD

Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses on October 31st in Wittenberg, Saxony, which sparked the Protestant Reformation.

1520-1600s AD

There were many wars fought that are immediately connected with the Reformation: 

  • Knights' Revolt (1522–1523)
  • German Peasants' War (1524–1526)
  • Wars of Kappel (1529–1531)
  • Münster rebellion (1534–1535)
  • Anabaptist riot (1535)
  • Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547)
  • Princes' Revolt (1552–1555)
  • French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)
  • Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
  • Cologne War (1583–1588)
  • Strasbourg Bishops' War (1592–1604)
1521 AD
Luther appears at the Diet before Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, to answer charges of heresy. By refusing to recant, he was declared a heretic and formally excommunicated by the Catholic Church by Pope Leo X.

1526 AD

Diet of Speyers which declared that the religion of a nation would be based upon the religion of the ruler. This Diet was repudiated in the 1529 Diet of Speyer.

1527 AD

John Dee is born in London. He became a well-known mathematician, astrologer, occultist, Rosicrucian, and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I of England.

1529 AD
The Second Diet of Speyers resulted in the protection of Catholics in Lutheran lands, but didn’t extend protection to Lutherans in Catholic lands 1546 AD.
Martin Luther dies in Eisleben.

1552 AD

Rudolf II was born on July 18th in Vienna. He would go on to serve as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1576 to 1612. Relevant to this article, his reign was marked by tolerance to Protestantism, alchemy, and Hermeticism.

1555 AD

The Peace of Augsburg is signed which grants toleration to Lutherans within the Holy Roman Empire using the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio" or "Whose region, his religion".

1561 AD

Francis Bacon is born on January 22, 1561. Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, would become a Rosicrucian, philosopher, scientist, author, Attorney General, and Lord Chancellor of England.
1568 AD
Michael Maier, a German physicist, Rosicrucian, and alchemist, is born in Rendsburg, Germany.

1574 AD

Robert Fludd, the English philosopher, physician, and mystic, is born on January 17, 1574, in Kent, England.
1586 AD

Johann Valentin Andreae is born on August 17th in the Duchy of Württemberg. He is thought to be the author behind the Rosicrucian Manifestos.

1596 AD

Elizabeth Stuart is born in Scotland. Elizabeth was the daughter of King James I and wife to Frederick V of the Palatinate.
Frederick V of the Palatinate is born in the Upper Palatinate (Germany).

1601 AD

Johann Valentin Andreae attends Tubingen University; his grandfather had served as Chancellor some years before. Over the next few years, Andreae gets involved with the Tübingen circle started by Tobias Hess (1568 - 1614). Other members of this group were Christoph Besold, Tobias Adami, Wilhelm Wense, Tomaso Campanella, and Abraham Holzel.

1604 AD

The tomb of Christian Rosenkreutz is said to have been discovered.

1608 AD

John Dee passes.
1612 AD

Rudolf II dies and Matthias of Austria is elected Holy Roman Emperor.

1614 AD

The Fama Fraternitatis is published in the Hesse-Kassel region of what is now Germany.

1615 AD

The Confessio Fraternitatis is published in Wilhelm Wessel in the Hesse-Kassel region of Germany.

1616 AD

The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz is published in Strasbourg (Germany). Many believe these Rosicrucian Manifestos were targeted at the Protestant Princes generally, but specifically to Frederick V of the Palatinate and Elizabeth Stuart who were married in 1613.

1617 AD

Elias Ashmole, an English Rosicrucian and Freemason, is born on May 23rd.

1618 AD

On May 23rd, Protestants throw two Catholic councilors out of a window in Prague. This event became known as the Defenestration of Prague. This event kicked off the Bohemian Revolt and the Thirty Years War.
In the "Pia et Utilissima Admonitio de Fratribus Rosae Crucis," Henrichus Neuhusius claims that Rosicrucians have fled to the East due to the political and religious instability.
The Mirror of the Wisdom of the Rosicrucians is published by Daniel Mogling under the pseudonym of Theophilus Schweighardt.

1620 AD
Battle of White Mountain occurs on November 8th which results in Protestant defeat. Frederick V is stripped of his titles and land. This was the first major battle of the Thirty Years War which dispersed German refugees all over Europe. One of the displaced was John Amos Comenius, a friend and follower of Andreae, who wandered through Northern Europe and was in England in 1641.

1622 AD

Michael Maier passes.
1626 AD

Francis Bacon passes.
1629 AD

The "Summum Bonum" is published by Robert Fludd.
1637 AD

Robert Fludd passes.
1648 AD

The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years War, was signed on October 24th in Münster and Osnabrück. It established the concepts of state sovereignty and self-determination; it stripped the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church of much of its authority in the politics of states.

1652 AD

Thomas Vaughan translates the Fama and Confessio to English.

1654 AD

Johann Valentin Andreae dies in Stuttgart on June 27th.

1660 AD

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, also known as the Royal Society, is founded on November 28th, 1660. Some believe that the Invisible College, mentioned in 17th-century German Rosicrucian pamphlets, was a precursor to the Royal Society.
1694 AD
A group of German mystics immigrated to Pennsylvania which some mark as the date that Rosicrucianism coming to America.
1719 AD
Georg von Welling published the "Opus Mago-Cabalisticum et Theologicum" in Frankfurt-am-Main.
1727 AD
Martinez de Pasqually was born in Grenoble, France, who was a Rosicrucian who was initiated into the Emanuel Swedenborg Rite and founded the Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus-Cohen de l'Univers (a precursor to Martinism).

1737 AD

The Rose LineRamsay's Oration is delivered on March 21, 1737, and declares that Freemasonry came from the Knights of St. John. This Oration is credited with sparking the interest in creating many concordant bodies such as the Scottish Rite which includes the Chapter of Rose Croix (red cross or Rosicrucian).

1741 AD

The earliest records of Royal Order of Scotland, which confers the degrees of Heredom of Kilwinning and Knight of the Rosy Cross, are from 1741. The Knight of the Rosy Cross was established, according to legend, on St. John's Day in 1314.

1743 AD

The accepted date of the beginning of the degrees that would become the Scottish Rite in Paris and Bordeaux.

1747 AD

The "Aureum Vellus" is published which speaks of a "Society of the Golden Rosicrucians" who were inheritors of the Golden Fleece.

1750s AD

The Rite of Strict Observance is believed to have been formed some time in the early 1750s by Karl Gotthelf von Hund in Germany.
The Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross, a German Rosicrucian organization founded by Freemason and alchemist Hermann Fichtuld sometime in the 1750s, but some believe that it was started in 1710. One had to be a Master Mason to join. It conferred nine grades or degrees: 

 - Juniorus
II° - Theoricus
III° - Practicus
IV° - Philosophus
V° - Adeptus Minor
VI° - Adeptus Major
VII° - Adeptus Exemptus
VIII° - Magister
IX° - Magus
This order's degrees and hierarchy were used in the formation of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The order spread through the Germanic states, Poland, Hungary, and Russia.
1763 AD

Willermoz founded the Souverain Chapitre des Chevaliers de L'Aigle Noir - Rose-Croix (Sovereign Chapter of the Knights of the "Black Eagle - Rose-Croix).

1766 AD

Rosicrucianism was banned by Imperial Decree within Austria.

1770s AD

The Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests (HRAKTP) was thought to have been founded between 1770 and 1780. The Nineteenth degree is called "Knight of Rosae Cross."

1776 AD

In the winter of 1778, at the request of Willermoz, a meeting called the Convent of Gaul was called to order to discuss the reform the Auvergne Province of the Rite of Strict Observance. This body changed its name to the Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte (Knights Beneficent of the Holy City) or CBCS.

1779 AD

The "Compass of the Wise" was published which contained alchemical and Rosicrucian material.


1782 AD

The Congress of Wilhelmsbad occurs in the Hesse-Kassel region of Germany; the same region where the Fama and Confessio were first publicly published. The Congress resulted in the merger of the Rite of Strict Observance with the CBCS.
1785 AD
"Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians" appears in Hamburg which contained alchemical illustrations and Rosicrucian teachings.

1801 AD

The first Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite was founded in Charleston, SC, on May 31, 1801.

1858 AD

The Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, also called the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, was founded in 1858 by Paschal Beverly Randolph, and claims to be the oldest Rosicrucian Order in the US.

1866 AD

The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA) is founded in 1866. It was originally named "Rosicrucian Society of England or Brethren of the Rosy cross."

1876 AD

The Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia (SRIS) is founded.
The Societas Rosicruciana in Canada (SRIC) was officially founded on September 19, 1876, by Col. McLeod Moore. Moore had been advanced to the IX° by Prince Rhodocanakis IX°, Supreme Magus of the Rosicrucian Society for the Kingdom of Greece, in July 1876. The Grecian Society seemed to not last long and died when the Prince died.
1879 AD
The SRIS granted a charter and the Pennsylvania College formed on December 27, 1879.

1880 AD

The SRIS granted a charter to New York College on April 9, 1880.
The Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF) was founded on April 21, 1880, in Philadephia, PA. It was originally named the Societas Rosicrucianae Republica Confoedera America and the governing body was styled "Grand High Council."
Massachusetts College was chartered on May 4, 1880.
The High Council of the SRRCA was consecrated on September 21, 1880.

1885 AD

The High Council of the "Rosicrucian Society of England or Brethren of the Rosy cross" changed its name to Societas Rosicrucian in Anglia by William Wynn Westcott, but was not fully used until 1889 when Westcott was Secretary-General of the High Council.

1888 AD

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was founded in 1888 by William Wynn Westcott, Samuel Liddell, MacGregor Mathers, and William Robert Woodman.

1909 AD

The Societas Rosicruciana in America was founded by Dr. George Winslow Plummer who seceded from the SRICF, dropped the requirement for one to be a Master Mason, and admitted women.
The Rosicrucian Fellowship was founded in 1909 by Max Heindel with the aim of publicly promulgating "the true Philosophy" of the Rosicrucians. 

1915 AD

The Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis was established in 1915 in New York City by Harvey Spencer Lewis, and is currently headquartered in San Jose, CA. 
1934 AD

The SRRCA changed its name to Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF) on January 17th, 1934. 

1989 AD

The Ancient Order of the Rosicrucians was started in 1989 by Daniel Wagner and is currently headquartered in Vienna, Austria.

2002 AD

The Societas Rosicruciana in Lusitania (SRIL) is founded on October 5th, 2002.
I am going to continue to update this timeline of Rosicrucianism as more information comes to my attention.

References

1. A Hermetic & Rosicrucian Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved from Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: https://www.golden-dawn.com/eu/displaycontent.aspx?pageid=71-#1800 


2. About Us. (n.d.). Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Canada: http://rosicrucians.ca/about-us/ 

3. Chronological list of groups. (n.d.). Retrieved from The American Rosicrucian Order: http://rosicruciansociety.com/Chronological-Timeline.html 

4. Dawkins, P. (n.d.). Secrets of the Rosy Cross. Retrieved from Francis Bacon Research Trust: https://www.fbrt.org.uk/pages/essays/Secrets_of_the_Rosy_Cross.pdf 


5. History of the Rosicrucian Society of England 1867. (n.d.). Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia: https://www.sria.uk.com/about-the-society/history-of-the-rosicrucian-society-of-england-1867/ 

6. Jackson, K. (2007). Beyond the Craft. Ian Allen Publishing. 

7. Lindez, D. (n.d.). Description of the Society. Retrieved from Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis: http://www.sricf.org/info.html 

8. Martin Luther. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from BIOGRAPHY: https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin-luther 


9. McIntosh, C. (1997). Rosicrucians: The History, Mythology, and Rituals of an Esoteric Order. San Francisco: Weiser Books. 



10. Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_Golden_and_Rosy_Cross 


11. Rosicrucianism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucianism 


12. Rosicrucians. (n.d.). Retrieved from InfoPlease: https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/religion/other/misc/rosicrucians 


13. Royal Society. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Society 


14. Societas Rosicruciana. (n.d.). Retrieved from The American Rosicrucian Order: http://rosicruciansociety.com/Societas-Rosicruciana.html 


15. The Rosicrucian Impulse: Magic, Mysticism, and Ritual. (n.d.). Retrieved from Order of the Rose and Cross: http://order.rosy-cross.org/node/86 


16. The Thirty Years' War. (n.d.). Retrieved from Timeline Index: http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/1422 


17. Thirty Years War. (n.d.). Retrieved from Encyclopedia: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/thirty-years-war 



18. Thirty Years’ War. (2009, November 9). Retrieved from History Channel: https://www.history.com/topics/reformation/thirty-years-war 



19. Thomas, S. (2008, January 1). Timeline of Thirty Years War. Retrieved from Balagan: https://balagan.info/timeline-of-thirty-years-war 

20. Yates, F. (2001). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. Routledge.