Thursday, August 27, 2015

Kappa Sigma Bio: George Miles Arnold

The third in this series of Kappa Sigma Biographies is George Miles Arnold, one of the Five Friends and Brothers. George Miles Arnold was born on August 27, 1851, in Troy, NY. George was born while the family was visiting Troy as they were then living in Mobile, AL, where George's father ran a wholesale business. George's mother died while he was still an infant

George Miles Arnold started attending the University of Virginia in 1869 where studied Latin, French, and Mathematics. It was while studying languages  where he earned the nickname "the little Spaniard." It was in the Winter that the Kappa Sigma fraternity was founded and George Miles Arnold was one of the founders, also known as the Five Friends and Brothers. George played an important role in the history of the fraternity as he wrote the Constitution and served as the first Grand Master of Zeta Chapter, the first Chapter of the Kappa Sigma fraternity in the United States.

In 1871, George started to study medicine, but then in February of 1871 he withdrew from the University after he shot a black resident of Charlottesville while intoxicated. The man survived, but George feared retaliation fled and presumably headed to NY because a few weeks later he was a student in the Medical College of New York; he received his M.D in 1873.

He continued to live in New York working as a doctor and married Minnie Jane Law on September 8, 1874. They had 8 children together, but only 3 survived childhood. Robert Miles Arnold, the only surviving son, would go on to join the Gamma-Zeta Chapter while attending New York University.

It is believed that George Miles Arnold was a Master Mason, but I have not yet confirmed this.


On January 25, 1890, George Miles Arnold died of pneumonia and was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, in the Bronx. George Miles Arnold was very dedicated Brother and it was that, "He gave nearly his whole time to the society." In commemoration to this distinguished Brother, the fraternity presents the George Miles Arnold Cup to a Chapter who demonstrates "the highest level of commitment to Ritual education, throughout its entire membership."

References

1. 5 Friends and Brothers. n.d. http://www.umich.edu/~kappasig/5Brothers.htm.

2. The Five Founders. n.d. https://quizlet.com/54353742/the-five-founders-flash-cards/.

3. Bononia Docet Test 1. n.d. https://quizlet.com/20516061/bononia-docet-test-1-flash-cards/.

4. Docet Kappa Sigma. n.d. https://quizlet.com/21517822/docet-kappa-sigma-flash-cards/.

5. Founding of the Order. n.d. http://gukappasigma.celect.org/about-mu-iota-chapter.

6. George Miles Arnold. November 13, 2014. https://uvastudents.wordpress.com/2014/11/13/george-miles-arnold-27-aug-1851-25-jan-1890/.

7. History. n.d. http://kappasigma.org/about/history/.

8. "The Founders of Kappa Sigma." Caduceus of Kappa Sigma 19 (1904): 356-357.

Thursday, August 20, 2015

York Rite Abbreviations, Initialisms, and Acronyms

In Freemasonry has an extensive list of abbreviations, initialisms, and acronyms for certain terms, groups, and officer titles. This list will focus on terms common to the York Rite of Freemasonry and the chair degrees attached to it; I will also include the abbreviations, initialisms, and acronyms for the optional and invitational groups attached to the York Rite, but I will not include all the various abbreviations, initialisms, and acronyms used in those respective groups (that will be a later article).  Some of them may have multiple meanings which will be separated by a semicolon. Some titles or terms may have different ways to be abbreviated which will also be noted. Punctuation between the letters and abbreviations will vary depending on the type of acronym and what is commonly used for it today; I will post them using the most common method, but several of terms can have punctuation that is interchangeable.. You may see some acronyms and abbreviations with no punctuation, the one dot, or the Therefore sign (:. or .'.); traditionally the Therefore sign is used for mathematics and logic problems, but it has been adopted as a custom for abbreviations in Freemasonry.

To clarify the use of terms: Abbreviation is defined as a shortened or contracted form of a word or phrase, used to represent the whole, Acronyms are abbreviations that are pronounced as words (i.e NATO), and Initialisms are abbreviations that are pronounced one letter at a time (i.e. FBI).

-A-
A.B. - Anno Benefacio meaning the "Year of the Blessing" and is used as a dating system in the Order of the High Priesthood.
A:.Dep:. - Anno Depositionis meaning the "Year of the Deposit" which is used in a Council of Royal and Select Masters (or Cryptic Masons).
A:.Inv:. - Anno Inventionis meaning the "Year of the Discovery," a dating system used in Royal Arch Masonry.
AMD - Allied Masonic Degrees, an invitational body within the York Rite that is dedicated to Masonic Research.
A.O. - Anno Ordinis meaning "Year of the Order" used in a Commandery of Knights Templar for dating their records.

-C-
CBCS - Chevaliers Biefaisants de La City Sainte which is French for Holy Order of Knights Beneficient of the Holy City which is an invitation-only Christian Masonic rite.
C:.G:. - Captain General, a dais officer in the Commandery of Knights Templar and Priory of the Knights of Malta; Captain of the Guards (see also "C.o.G.").
C:.H:. - Captain of the Host, an officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (sometimes seen also as "C.H." or "C.O.H.").
Chap. - Chaplain, an officer found in multiple bodies of Freemasonry (may also see "CH" used).
Comp. - Companion, the title for members used in Royal Arch Masonry and Cryptic Masonry.
C.o.G. - Captain of the Guards, an officer in a Council of Cryptic Masons.
C.o.O.: Captain of the Outposts, an officer used in the Priory of the Knights of Malta (the acronym "C.O." may be also used).
C.T. - Companion of the Temple, an honor bestowed by the Grand Encampment on both men and women.

-D-

DC - Department Commander, an officer used by the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar who represents the Grand Encampment to a region, a collection of states or nations.
D:.G:.G:.H:.P:. - Deputy General Grand High Priest, an officer used by the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International who represents the General Grand Chapter to a region, a collection of states or nations.
D:.G:.G:.M:. - Deputy General Grand Master, an officer of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International; there are also Regional Deputy General Grand Master who represents General Grand Council to a region, a collection of states or nations.
D:.G:.H:.P:. - Deputy Grand High Priest, an officer used by some Grand Chapters of Royal Arch Masonry who represent the Grand High Priest to an assigned District within the Grand Chapter's jurisdiction.
D:.G:.M:. - Deputy Grand Master, the second in command for the Grand Encampment.

-E-

E:. - Eminent, an honorary title used for Commanders, Past Commanders, and certain Grand Commandery officers in the Knights Templar (may also see "Em."); Excellent, an honorary title used for High Priests, Past High Priests, and certain Grand Chapter officers in Royal Arch Masonry (see also E.C.).
E.C. - Eminent Commander, the officer in charge of a Commandery of Knights Templar; Excellent Companion, a title sometimes used for High Priests, Past High Priests, and certain Grand officers in Royal Arch Masonry.
E.H.P. - Excellent High Priest, the head of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry. 
E.P. - Eminent Prior, the officer in charge of a Priory of the Knights of Malta.

-G-

G:. - Grand, a prefix to titles of officers in Grand bodies as seen throughout Freemasonry.

G:.A:.O:.T:.U:. - Great (or Grand) Architect of the Universe, a generic term used to denote the Supreme Being.
Gen:. - Generalissimo, a dais officer in the Commandery of Knights Templar.

G:.C:. - Grand Chapter, Grand Council, or Grand Commandery: levels of organization in the three bodies of the York Rite of Freemasonry; Grand Commander, the presiding officer of a Grand Commandery (see also "R.E.G.C.); Grand Cross, an honorary title or award used in certain bodies of York Rite Freemasonry; Grand Conclave, the term used for the meeting of a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.C:.G:. - Grand Captain General, an officer used in Grand Commanderies and the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar; Grand Captain of the Guard, an officer of a Grand Council of Cryptic Masons.
G:.C:.H.: - Grand Captain of the Host, an officer in a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
GCT - Grand Cross Templar, a version of the KGC awarded to certain members of the College of Honors of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar.
G.E.K.T. - Grand Encampment of Knights Templar, the highest governing body of Knights Templar in the United States.
G:.G:. - Grand Generalissimo, an officer of a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar and in the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar.
G:.G:.C:. - General Grand Chapter, a level of organization in Royal Arch Masonry usually has authority over Grand Chapters and Chapters that fall outside any Grand Chapter; General Grand Chaplain, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International and in the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G:.C:.C:. - General Grand Conductor of the Council, an officer in the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G:.C:.G:. - General Grand Captain of the Guard, an officer in the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G:.C:.H:. - General Grand Captain of Host, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International.
G:.G:.H:.P:. - General Grand High Priest, the presiding officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International.
G:.G:.K:. - General Grand King, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International.
G:.G:.M:. - General Grand Master (see "M:.P:.G:.G:.M:."); General Grand Marshal, an officer in the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G:.M:.1:.V:. - General Grand Master of the First Veil, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International (may also use "G:.G:.M:.F:.V:.).
G:.G:.M:.2:.V:. - General Grand Master of the Second Veil, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International (may also use "G:.G:.M:.S:.V:.).
G:.G:.M:.3:.V:. - General Grand Master of the Third Veil, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International (may also use "G:.G:.M:.T:.V:.).
G:.G:.P:.C:.W:. - General Grand Principal Conductor of the Work, an officer of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G:.P:.S:. - General Grand Principal Sojourner, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International.
G:.G:.R:.A:.C:. - General Grand Royal Arch Captain, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International.
G:.G:.R:. - General Grand Recorder, the administrative officer for the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G.:S:. - General Grand Scribe, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International; General Grand Secretary, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International; General Grand Steward, an officer of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International; General Grand Sentinel, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International and General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.G.:T:. - General Grand Treasurer, an officer of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International and of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
G:.H:.P:. - Grand High Priest, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (see also "M.E.G.H.P.").
G:.J:.W:. - Grand Junior Warden, an officer of a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.K:. - Grand King, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry.
G:.M:.1:.V:. - Grand Master of the First Veil, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (may also use "G:.M:.F:.V:.).
G:.M:.2:.V:. - Grand Master of the Second Veil, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (may also use "G:.M:.S:.V:.).
G:.M:.3:.V:. - Grand Master of the Third Veil, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (may also use "G:.M:.T:.V:.).
G:.P:. - Grand Prelate, an officer of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar.
G:.P:.C:.W:. - Grand Principal Conductor of the Work, an officer of a Grand Council of Cryptic Masons.
G:.P:.S:. - Grand Principal Sojourner, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry.
G:.R:. - Grand Recorder, an administrative officer in various Grand bodies of York Rite Freemasonry whose duties mirror a Grand Secretary.
G:.R:.A:.C:. - Grand Royal Arch Chapter, a level of organization within Royal Arch Masonry; Grand Royal Arch Captain, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry.
G:.S:. - Grand Secretary, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry (may also use "G:.Sec:."); Grand Scribe, an officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry; Grand Steward, an officer of a Grand Council of Cryptic Masonry; Grand Sentinel; an officer in a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Grand Council of Cryptic Masons, and Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.S:.B:. - Grand Standard Bearer (see also "G:.St:.B:."); Grand Sword Bearer (see also "G:.Sw:.B:.").
G:.St:.B:. - Grand Standard Bearer, an officer in a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.Sw:.B:. - Grand Sword Bearer, an officer in a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.S:.W:. - Grand Senior Warden, an officer of a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
G:.T:. - Grand Treasurer, the financial officer in several Grand bodies of York Rite Freemasonry.
G:.W:. - Grand Warder, an officer of a Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
-H-
H.P. - High Priest (see also "E.H.P.").
HRAKTP - Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests, an honorary and invitational bodies of the American York Rite
-I-
I.O.R.C. - Illustrious Order of Red Cross, the first order conferred by a Commandery of Knights Templar.
Ill:. - Illustrious, an honorary title used in several groups in Freemasonry.
I.M. - Illustrious Master, the presiding officer of a Council of Cryptic Masonry (see also "T.I.M.").
-J-
J.D. - Junior Deacon, an officer used in a Lodge of Mark Master, Lodge of Past Master, Lodge of Most Excellent Master, and Council of Allied Masonic Degrees.
J.W. - Junior Warden, an officer of a Commandery of Knights Templar, Lodge of Mark Masters, and a Lodge of Past Masters.
-K-
KCT - Knight Commander of the Temple, the second highest decoration awarded by the Grand Encampment.
KGC - Knight Grand Cross of the Temple, an award bestowed upon those who have been elected as an officer of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar.
K.M. - Knight of Malta (see also "O.M.").
K.T. - Knight (or Knights) Templar, a commonly used term for members of a Commandery and who have received the Order of the Temple.
K:. - King, a dais officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
KYCH - Knight of the York Cross of Honor, an invitational body within the York Rite available to those who have served as Worshipful Master of a Blue Lodge, High Priest of a Royal Arch Chapter, Illustrious Master of a Council of Cryptic Masons, and Eminent Commander of a Commandery of Knights Templar.
KTCH - Knights Templar Cross of Honor, the highest meritorious award of the Grand Encampment.
-L-
Lt. Com. - Lieutenant Commander, an officer of a Priory of the Knights of Malta (may also see "LC"). 
-M-
Mar. - Marshal, an officer in a a Priory of the Knights of Malta.
M1V - Master of the 1st Veil, an officer of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons (may also see "M:.F:.V:.).
M2V - Master of the 2nd Veil, an officer of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons (may also see "M:.S:.V:.).
M3V - Master of the 3rd Veil, an officer of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons (may also see "M:.T:.V:.).
M.C. - Master of Cavalry, an officer of the Order of the Red Cross.
M.D. - Master of Dispatches, an officer of the Order of the Red Cross.
M.E. - Most Eminent, title applied to office of Grand Master of Templars; Most Excellent, a title for those Companions who are serving or have served as Grand High Priest of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
MEGHP - Most Excellent Grand High Priest, the presiding officer of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
M:.E:.G:.M:. - Most Eminent Grand Master, the presiding officer of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of America.
MEM - Most Excellent Master, a degree within Royal Arch Masonry.
M.F. - Master of Finance, officer of the Order of the Red Cross.
M.I. - Master of Infantry, officer of the Order of the Red Cross.
MIGM - Most Illustrious Grand Master, the presiding officer of a Grand Council of Cryptic Masons (or Royal and Select Masters).
MM - Master Mason, title for those who have received the 3rd degree of Freemasonry; Mark Master (also see MMM).
MMM - Mark Master Mason, a degree within American Royal Arch Masonry.
M:.O:. - Master Overseer, an officer of a Lodge of Mark Masters.
M:.P:.G:.G:.M:. - General Grand Master, the presiding officer of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.
-N-
N.P.D. - non-payment of dues.
-O-
OHP - Order of the High Priesthood, a chair degree for sitting or Past High Priests.
O.M. - Order of Malta, the second order conferred within a Commandery of Knights Templar.
O.R.C. - Order of Red Cross, the first order conferred within a Commandery of Knights Templar (also see "I.O.R.C.").
OST - Order of the Silver Trowel, a chair degree for the sitting or Past Illustrious Masters (Thrice Illustrious Masters).
O.T. - Order of Temple, third and final order conferred within a Commandery of Knights Templar.
-P-
P:. - Past, an honorary title attached to certain members who have served in specific positions throughout Freemasonry; Prelate, an officer within a Commandery of Knights Templar whose duties are comparative to the Chaplain; Prior, the presiding officer of a Priory of the Knights of Malta (also see "Pr.").
P.C. - Prince Chancellor, officer of Red Cross Order; Past Commander (also see P.E.C.).
P:.C:.W:. - Principal Conductor of the Work, a dais officer in a Council of Cryptic Masons.
P.E.C. - Past Eminent Commander, a title given to those Sir Knights who have presided over a Commandery of Knights Templar.
PGHP - Past Grand High Priest, a title given to those who have presided over a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; this title can be preceded by the abbreviation "M.E.".
PIM - Past Illustrious Master, a title given to those Companions who have presided over a Council of Cryptic Masons.
P.M.P. - Price Master of Palace, an officer of the Order of the Red Cross.
Pr. - Prior (also see "P:.").
Prel.: - Prelate, (also see "P:.").
PS - Principal Sojourner, an officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
-R-
RA - Royal Arch.
RAC - Royal Arch Captain, an officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
RAM - Royal Arch Mason; Royal Arch Masonry.
RCC - Red Cross of Constantine, an invitational body stemming off of Royal Arch Masonry.
Rec:. - Recorder, the administrative officer of a Commandery of Knights Templar.
R.E. - Right Eminent, an honorary title applied to a Grand or Past Grand Commander; Right Excellent, an honorary title applied to certain Grand Chapter officers of Royal Arch Masonry.
RER - "Rite Ecossais Rectifie" meaning Rectified Scottish Rite (see also "CBCS").
R:.M:. - Royal Master, the first degree within the Cryptic Rite.
ROOS - Royal Order of Scotland, is an invitational order connecting both to the Scottish Rite and York Rite.
R.'. & S.'. M.'. - Royal and Select Masters, two degrees of the Cryptic Rite (see also "R:.M:." and "S:.M:.").
RW - Right Worshipful, the honorary title used for several titles in Freemasonry.
RWM - Right Worshipful Master, the presiding officer of a Lodge of Mark Masters, Lodge of Past Masters, and a Lodge of Most Excellent Masters.
-S-
S:. - Scribe, a dais officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; Sentinel, an officer in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Council of Cryptic Masons, and Commandery of Knights Templar (equatable to the Tiler in the Blue Lodge); Secretary (also see "Sec:.").
SAOTU - Supreme Architect of the Universe, another generic term used to denote the Supreme Being.
SD - Senior Deacon, an officer in a Lodge of Mark Masters, Lodge of Past Masters, and a Lodge of Most Excellent Masters.
Sec:. - Secretary, the administrative officer in several groups in Freemasonry such as Royal Arch Masons and Cryptic Masons (also see "Rec:.).
Sen. - Sentinel (also see "S:.").
SEM - Super Excellent Master, an optional degree within the Cryptic Rite.
SK - Sir Knight, a title given to members of a Commandery of Knights Templar.
S:.M:. - Select Master, the second degree of the Cryptic Rite; Sovereign Master, the presiding officer of a Council of the Illustrious Order of the Red Cross.
S:.O:. - Senior Overseer, an officer of a Lodge of Mark Masters. 
S.'.S.'. - Sanctum Sanctorum or Holy of Holies
St:.B:. - Standard Bearer, an officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar.
S.W. - Senior Warden, an officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar.
Sw:.B:. - Sword Bearer, an officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar.
-T-
Treas:. - Treasurer, the financial officer in several Masonic groups.
T.I.M. - Thrice Illustrious Master, 
T.'. - Treasurer (see also "Treas:.").
-U-
UD - Under Dispensation
-V-
V.E. - Very Eminent, title applied to Deputy Grand Commander. 
VIC - Very Illustrious Companion
-W-
W. - Warder
-Y-
YRSCNA - York Rite Sovereign College of North America, an invitational order within the York Rite dedicated to improving the York Rite of Freemasonry through education and enhanced ritual presentation.
If you know of others not posted, please contact me.

References

1. Abbreviations and Reference Words. n.d. http://phoenixmasonry.org/abbreviations_and_reference_words.htm.

2. Abbreviations vs. Acronyms vs. Initialisms. March 17, 2008. http://data.grammarbook.com/blog/abbreviations/abbreviations-acronyms-and-initialisms-revisited/.

3. Bessel, Paul M. Masonic Abbreviations. n.d. http://www.bessel.org/abbrevs.htm.

4. Denslow, Ray V. A Templar Encyclopedia. 1951. http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/templar_encyclopedia.htm.

5. Masonic Abbreviations. n.d. http://www.themasonictrowel.com/education/references/mabbreviations.htm.

6. Masonic Abbreviations. n.d. http://freemasoninformation.com/masonic-education/freemasonry-in-general/masonic-abbreviations/.

7. Grand Officers. 2015. http://www.knightstemplar.org/officers.html.

8. Leadership. 2014. http://www.ggccmi.org/index.php/leadership-and-contacts.

9. Marshall, George L. Grand Encampment Awards and Honors. 2014. http://www.knightstemplar.org/KnightTemplar/articles/20140828.htm.

10. Officers. 2014. http://www.ramint.org/officers.htm.

11. Order of the High Priesthood. n.d. http://www.idyorkrite.org/index.php/order-of-high-priesthood.

12. Order of the Silver Trowel. n.d. http://www.idyorkrite.org/index.php/order-of-the-silver-trowel.

Monday, August 17, 2015

Laurence Dermott

Within American Freemasonry, Laurence Dermott is a relatively unknown figure. Laurence served as Grand Secretary and, later, as Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, or more commonly known as the Ancients or Antients, as well as authored the Ahiman Rezon, the Constitution of the Antient Grand Lodge.

Laurence Dermott was born sometime in the year 1720 in Ireland; it is argued that he was either born in Dublin where his father, a wealthy merchant, did business or the family home in Strokestown, County Roscommon (northwestern Ireland).

Laurence was initiated into Freemasonry on January 14, 1741, although there is some debate whether his entrance was in 1741 or 1740. 1746 was a significant year for him as he both became Worshipful Master of ## Lodge #26 in Dublin and became a Royal Arch Mason. His joining the Royal Arch would come to have a significant on English Freemasonry and, indirectly, American Freemasonry.

In 1748, Laurence moved to London where he originally affiliated with a Lodge recognized by the Premier Grand Lodge of England, or commonly referred to as the Moderns, but then joined an unaffiliated Irish Lodge.

On February 5, 1752, a year after the formation of the Antient Grand Lodge and the start of the "Great Schism", 
Laurence was elected as Grand Secretary. By April he was successful in pushing for By-Law reform for the Antients and in 1756 the first edition of the Ahiman Rezon was published. It is thought that they were completed years earlier, but wanting for a noble patron caused the delay. There were would be editions published in 1778, 1787, 1800, 1801, 1807, and 1813. The first edition contains a parody of the histories of Freemasonry as written Dr. Anderson and many believe there was a political purpose behind Dermott's writing of the Ahiman Rezon. In this write up Dermott narrates a dream he has where four sojourners that were appointed by Solomon, appear before Dermott and inform him that he is to write a history of Freemasonry. The exact reason behind Dermott's choice of "Ahiman Rezon" is not exactly known, but many believe it translates to "A help to a Brother", but there a few other translations offered up such as "will of select brethren", "secrets of prepared brethren", or "Royal Builders". These other translations are often not accepted as their translations require a stretch of the imagination or erroneous translations.

Laurence served until 1771 when at that time he became the Deputy Grand Master for the Antient Grand Lodge which was essentially the presiding officer as the Grand Master at the time was little more than a figurehead. He served as Deputy Grand Master until 1787.


Many attribute much of the Schism's longevity with the attitude and beliefs of Dermott. He had a great deal of contempt for the Moderns as he saw them as irregular who would sell the degrees for the price of a leg of mutton, and thus said there greatest symbols were the knife and fork. Some wonder if the Grand Lodges would have united earlier if not for Ahiman Rezon and Laurence Dermott.


Due to his uncompromising character and his high intellect he had made many enemies and it has been asserted that he invented by the degree of Royal Arch Mason by dismembering the Master Mason degree, but as history shows the Royal Arch degree was being conferred by 1744 (the earliest mention of Royal Arch Masonry) and Laurence Dermott wasn't Exalted to that most sublime degree until 1746.

The disagreemnt over what degrees were to be conferred was a divisive issue. The Antients considered the Royal Arch degree to be the completion of the Master Mason degree while the Moderns did not. Eventually these two Grand Lodges would resolve their differences and unite in 1813 into one single entity today known as the United Grand Lodge of England. Although the Royal Arch is a pseudo-separate entity in England, a Mason is not considered in possession of all the degrees of Craft Masonry until he has been exalted to the degree of Royal Arch Mason.


Towards the end of his life Laurence suffered greatly from gout and his last appearance in a Lodge was in 1789. He died in June of 1791, but it is unknown as to the exact day nor is it known as to the exact location of his grave. While some question his motives and blame him for the longevity of the Great Schism, I believe it was due to his seeing importance of the Royal Arch degree. He described the Royal Arch degree as "the Root, Heart and Marrow of Freemasonry". His zeal and continuous support for the Royal Arch has made a mark in history and today it's still described that the Master Mason's degree without the Royal Arch degree is a "song half sung, a story half told, a hope unrealized, a promise unfulfilled."

References

1. About Royal Arch Masonry. n.d. http://www.supremegrandchapter.org.uk/about-royal-arch-masonry/history-of-supreme-grand-chapter. 


2. Domenic, Gavin. Mistery of the Royal Arch. September 2006. http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/royal_arch_freemasonry.html. 

3. Laurence Dermott. n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurence_Dermott. 

4. Laurence Dermott. n.d. http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/dermott_l/dermott_l.html. 

5. MacDermot-Roe, Ken. Freemasonry and the MacDermotts. n.d. http://www.irishmasonichistory.com/laurence-dermott-freemasonry-and-the-macdermotts.html. 

6. Mackey, Albert G. Laurence Dermott. n.d. http://www.masonicdictionary.com/dermott.html. 

7. The Collected "Prestonian Lectures". 1988. http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/prestonian_lectures_volume_3.htm.

Monday, August 3, 2015

The Warden’s Song

I

WHEN e’er we are alone,
And ev’ry Stranger gone,
In Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring,
Begin to play, begin to sing,
The mighty Genius of the lofty Lodge,
In ev’ry Age
That did engage
And well inspir’d the Prince, the Priest,
the Judge,
The Noble and the Wise to join
In rearing Masons Grand Design.


II

The Grand Design to rear,
Was ever Mason’s Care,
From Adam down before the Flood,
Whose Art old Noah understood,
And did impart to Japhet, Shem and Ham,
Who taught their Race
To build apace
Proud Babel’s Town and Tow’r, until it came
To be admir’d too much, and then
Dispersed were the Sons of Men.


III

But tho’ their Tongues confus’d
In distant Climes they us’d,
They brought from Shinar Orders good,
To rear the Art they understood:
Therefore sing first the Princes of the Isles;
Next Belus great,
Who fixt his Seat
In old Assyria, building stately Piles;
And Mitzraim’s Pyramids among 
The other Subjects of our Song.


IV

And Shem, who did instil 
The useful wondrous Skill 
Into the Minds of Nations great: 
And Abram next, who did relate 
Th’ Assyrian Learning to his Sons, that when 
In Egypt’s Land 
By Pharoah’s Hand, 
Were roughly taught to be most skilful Men; 
Till their Grand-Master Moses rose 
And them deliver’d from their Foes.


V

But who can sing his Praise, 
Who did the Tent upraise?
Then sing his Workmen true as Steel, 
Aholiab and Bezaleel; 
Sing Tyre and Sydon, and Phenicians old. 
But Samson’s Blot 
Is ne’er forgot: 
He blabb’d his Secrets to his Wife, that sold 
Her Husband, who at last pull’d down 
The House on all in Gaza Town.


VI

But Solomon the King
With solemn Note we sing,
Who rear’d at length the Grand Design,
By Wealth, and Pow’r, and Art divine;
Helpt by the learned Hiram Tyrian Prince,
By Craftsmen good,
That understood
Wise Hiram Abif’s charming Influence:
He aided Jewish Masters bright,
Whose curious Works none can recite


VII

These glorious Mason Kings
Each thankful Brother sings,
Who to its Zenith rais’d the Art,
And to all Nations did impart
The useful Skill: For from the Temple fine,
To ev’ry Land,
And foreign Strand,
The Craftsmen march’d, and taught the Grand Design;
Of which the Kings, with mighty Peers,
And learned Men, were Overseers.


VIII

Diana’s Temple next,
In Lesser Asia fixt;
And Babylon’s proud Walls, the Seat
Of Nebuchadnezar the Great;
The Tomb of Mausolus, the Carian King;
With many a Pile
Of lofty Style
In Africa and Greater Asia, sing,
In Greece, in Sicily, and Rome,
That had those Nations overcome.


IX

Then sing Augustus too,
The Gen’ral Master true,
Who by Vitruvius did refine
And spread the Masons Grand Design
Thro’ North and West; till ancient Britons chose
The Royal Art
In ev’ry Part,
And Roman Architecture could disclose;
Until the Saxons warlike Rage
Destroy’d the Skill of many an Age.


X

At length the Gothick Style
Prevail’d in Britain’s Isle,
When Masons Grand Design reviv’d,
And in their well form’d Lodges thriv’d,
Tho’ not as formerly in Roman Days: 
Yet sing the Fanes
Of Saxons, Danes,
Of Scots, Welch, Irish; but sing first the Praise
Of Athelstan and Edwin Prince,
Our Master of great Influence.


XI

And eke the Norman Kings
The British Mason sings:
Till Roman Style revived there,
And British Crowns united were
In learned James, a Mason King, who rais’d
Fine Heaps of Stones
By Inigo Jones,
That rival’d wise Palladio, justly prais’d
In Italy, and Britain too,
For Architecture firm and true.


XII

And thence in ev’ry Reign
Did Masonry obtain
With Kings, the Noble and the Wise,
Whose Fame resounding to the Skies,
Excites the present Age in Lodge to join,
And Aprons wear,
With Skill and Care,
To raise the Masons ancient Grand Design,
And to revive th’ Augustan Style
In many an artful glorious Pile.


XIII

From henceforth ever sing
The Craftsman and the King,
With Poetry and Musick sweet
Resound their Harmony compleat;
And with Geometry in skilful Hand,
Due Homage pay,
Without Delay,
To Wharton’s noble Duke our Master Grand
He rules the Free-born Sons of Art,
By Love and Friendship, Hand and Heart.


CHORUS

Who can rehearse the Praise,
In soft Poetick Lays,
Or solid Prose, of Masons true,
Whose Art transcends the common View?
Their Secrets, ne’er to Strangers yet expos’d,
Preserv’d shall be
By Masons Free,
And only to the ancient Lodge disclos’d;
Because they’re kept in Masons Heart
By Brethren of the Royal Art.

Saturday, August 1, 2015

Masonic Order of Athelstan

Yesterday I was initiated into Salish Court #96 of the Masonic Order of Athelstan, an invitation-only organization within the American York Rite, in Issaquah, WA. I'd like to thank my friend and Brother Bryan who invited me to join this order. I drove up with my regular traveling companion, Paul, and settled into our hotel before heading over to the Festive Board that was held prior to the meeting in the restaurant below the Lodge room. After eating we headed up to the Lodge room where they installed the officers for the ensuing year and afterward initiated me.

The Masonic Order of Athelstan dedicates its time to the promotion of education and the study of the symbolism and history of Freemasonry. To be a member in this organization, a candidate must be a member of both Craft and Royal Arch Masonry in good standing.

The Masonic Order of Athelstan was created in 2005 after a number of individuals interested in origins of Freemasonry started gathering and researching the Saxon Chronicles which focuses upon events that involve King Athelstan, a figure prominent in some origin theories of Freemasonry. These gatherings became a regular thing that soon the formation of a new order was discussed and encouraged. A ritual was drafted and the ritual used today surrounds the Assembly at York in 926 AD by King Athelstan. The idea became popular enough that the Order of Athelstan was able to form and constitute the "Grand Court of the Masonic Order of Athelstan"

The basic organizational level of the Order is known as a Court reminding of the Court of Athelstan and the central myth of this august body. For a new Court to form there needs to be 15 members to ensure a successful formation as well as the permission of the Grand Lodge of that jurisdiction. The officers of the Court are as follows:

Worshipful Master
Senior Warden
Junior Warden
Eminent Prior
Treasurer
Secretary
Marshal
Deputy Marshal
Almoner
Senior Deacon
Junior Deacon
Captain of the Guards
Burgh
Guard
A Court reports to the Provincial Grand Court of their respective jurisdiction who in turns reports to their respective Assistant Grand Master in charge of that region and who is a member of the Grand Court. The Provincial Grand Court can be composed of the following officers:

Provincial Grand Master Deputy Provincial Grand Master Assistant Provincial Grand MastersProvincial Eminent Grand PriorProvincial Senior Grand WardenProvincial Junior Grand WardenProvincial Grand SecretaryProvincial Grand TreasurerProvincial Grand MarshalProvincial Grand AlmonerProvincial Grand Sword BearerProvincial Deputy Grand MarshalProvincial Senior Grand DeaconProvincial Junior Grand DeaconProvincial Grand OrganistProvincial Grand Banner BearerProvincial Grand Captain of Guard Provincial Grand Guard

The Grand Court is the supreme authority of the Masonic Order of Athelstan. It is composed of the following officers:

Grand MasterDeputy Grand MasterAssistant Grand MasterAssistant Grand Masters in charge of the Americas, Australia, and IndiaProvincial Grand MastersEminent Grand PriorSenior Grand WardenJunior Grand Warden President DAC and GP CommitteeGrand SecretaryGrand RegistrarGrand Treasurer Grand Marshal Grand Sword BearerGrand Lecturer Grand High Almoner Deputy Eminent Grand PriorDeputy President DAC and GP CommitteeDeputy Grand Secretary Deputy Grand Marshal Deputy Grand Sword BearerSenior Grand DeaconJunior Grand DeaconGrand OrganistDeputy Grand OrganistGrand Banner BearerDeputy Grand Banner BearerGrand Captain of the GuardDeputy Grand Captain of the GuardGrand BurghDeputy Grand Guard

The Masonic Order of Athelstan came to the United States at AMD Week in 2011 where two Courts were established, one in North Carolina and the other in Pennsylvania. Today there are 9 Courts under the auspices of the Provincial Grand Court of the United States of America.

The Order of the Scarlet Mantle is an appendant order attached to the Masonic Order of Athelstan. It was created to reward those for their meritorious service within the Masonic Order of Athelstan. Members of the appendant order are known as "Knights" and the ritual surrounding this honor commemorates the knighting of Athelstan by King Alfred the Great, his grandfather, which occurred around 898 AD; this is the first recorded knighting in England. Upon being knighted, it has been said, Athelstan was given a scarlet mantle from which the appendant order derives its name. Those who have been knighted bear the initials "KSM" for Knight of the Scarlet Mantle, "KCSM" for Knight Commander of the Scarlet Mantle, or "GCSM" for Grand Cross of the Scarlet Mantle after their name. This appendant order is governed by an officer known as the Grand High Chancellor who is appointed by the Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Masonic Order of Athelstan. The Grand High Chancellor is supported by a number of Grand Chancellors

It was a great night and this morning I had breakfast with some Brethren from the area. Now it's time for the near 500-mile drive back to Boise.


References

1. About the Order. n.d. http://www.athelstan.org.uk/. 

2. Information about The Masonic Order of Athelstan. n.d. http://www.cumbriafreemasons.org/orders.asp?ord=14. 

3. Surratt, D. Allen. Description of the Order. n.d. http://www.athelstan-usa.org/description.html. 

4. The Order of the Scarlet Mantle. n.d. http://www.athelstan.org.uk/about-the-order/the-order-of-the-scarlet-mantle.

Monday, July 27, 2015

The Ancient City of Acre

The city of Acre plays an important part in the history of crusades and particularly in the history of the Commemorative Order of St. Thomas of Acon as it was in Acre where the order was founded. Acre is unique as it has existed since the time of the Phoenicians; has been influenced by the Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Bahai religions; and many of its ancient structures have been preserved over time.

Acre is located on the northern section of Haifa Bay in Israel and is one the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the world. Acre sits in an important location as it was an important trade port connecting the Levant to the maritime trade that occurred in the Mediterranean.

Acre is thought to have been founded some time during the early Bronze Age (circa 3000 B.C.). There is an early reference to a city named Aak, which appeared on a list of cities paying tribute to Thutmose III. The name "Acre" used was derived by the Greeks from the root word "ake" meaning healing, which goes back to the Greek mythological story of Heracles finding healing herbs there for his wounds. The original city was fortified by a high earthen wall where access was through brick gateways. It is also thought to have been referred to as Akko or Akka which city is found in Judges 1:31 and refers to a city where Israelites could not drive out Canaanites; the Jewish historian Josephus referred to the city as Akre. The city would eventually become a part of the territory belong to the tribe of Asher, one of the 12 tribes of Israel, and ruled by a provincial governor under King Solomon, though some argue that it remained an independent city. As it was on the northern edge of the Israeli kingdom and being a seaport town, Acre was exposed to other cultures and in the 8th century BC, took part in a revolt, along with Tyre and Sidon, against Shalmaneser V, an Assyrian king.


After Acre was conquered by Alexander the Great, the city was renamed 'Antiochia Ptolemais', named after Ptolemy II Philadelphus, King of Ptolemaic Egypt (a Hellenistic kingdom that existed after the death of Alexander the Great and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII).

Around 153 BC, Alexander I Balas, son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, contesting with Demetrius I Soter over the crown of the Syrian Kingdom of the Seleucidae, took over Acre, or Antiochia Ptolemais. 

The city was captured by Alexander Jannaeus (King of Judea), Cleopatra VII (Queen of Egypt), and Tigranes II (King of Armenia) in the 1st Century BC. For Alexander Jannaeus this was a strategic move as the Seleucid Empire was too weak to intervene and prevent the takeover.

During the control of Judea under the Roman Empire (starting around 48 BC), Acre was a staging point for legions to quell the Jewish rebellion (sometimes referred to as the Great Revolt). After the Roman Empire was split into two halves, Acre was administered by the Eastern Roman Empire (what would become the Byzantine Empire). The Byzantines would control it until 614 AD when the Persians took control of it for a short period.

In August of 636 AD, the Byzantines were defeated by the Islamic Army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid, a general of Abu Bakr, and is considered one of Khalid's greatest military victories. Following the battle, Acre fell under the rule of the Rashidun Caliphate. The Rashidun Caliphate ruled from 632 to 661 until it was replaced by the Umayyad Caliphate and them by the Abbasids. Through the caliphates, Acre was revived as it was used as one of the main ports and naval bases, and due to this importance the caliphates strengthened the fortifications.


The city would remain in the hands of Muslims until 1104 when, after 4-years of siege, Acre was finally captured by the armies commanded by King Baldwin I of the newly established Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Crusaders needed Acre for their chief port for both supplies and new troops required for maintaining their holdings and further conquest in the Holy Land. Acre also gave them access to the trade that had made the city so prosperous and was matched only in size by the city of Jerusalem. Acre made Jerusalem, and the crusader kingdom, very wealthy providing more than all the revenues of the King of England. Acre symbolized the exchange of western and eastern cultures better than any other city during the Crusades.


In 1187, Acre fell into the hands of the Ayyubid Sultan, Saladin, after his victory against the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin. This was not the only city lost to the Crusaders as a result of the Battle of Hattin; several other cities of great importance were lost such as Jerusalem. In 1189 Acre was besieged by the Crusaders, but it would take two years before they would capture the city from the Muslims.



The Siege of Acre was the start of the Third Crusade and lasted nearly 2-years. Guy de Lusignan, King of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, led the Crusading army to besiege the port city. After the Battle of Hattin, many of the strategic holdings such as Acre and Tyre were captured by Saladin's forces. This news shocked Europe and a call for a Third Crusade occurred. King Guy had been released after his capture at Hattin and with the refusal of Conrad to let him enter Tyre, headed towards Acre to capture the city and establish a new base of operations for his kingdom; his authority was tied solely to his wife and many rejected his claim as ruler of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Unable to take the city by surprise the Crusaders set up camp around the city and wait for reinforcements, this came in the form of Danish, French, German, Italians, and English. Upon hearing this news, Saladin moved his army towards Acre where the first battle occurred on September 15, 1189, and the Muslim forces were repelled, but small battles and skirmishes over the next several months. The Crusader force was in a precarious position as it had a Muslim garrison within Acre on one side and Saladin's forces located east of the city in a semicircle formation.

The Siege of Acre was plagued with stalemates and neither side could obtain a large enough victory to secure the complete defeat of their enemy. The Crusaders attempted to destroy the walls using siege machines, but when they attempt to breach the walls, Saladin would attack from the rear causing them to stop the infiltration of Acre and repel the Islamic forces which would give the garrison within Acre and opportunity to repair the damage. On July 4, 1191, city had taken enough damage that it offered terms of surrender to King Richard, but he rejected the conditions. A week later, after a final battle, the Crusaders accepted the terms of surrender offered by the Muslims holding the city of Acre.

It was during the Siege of Acre that William, the Chaplain to the Dean of St. Pauls, arrived in the Holy Land and came to see the devastation of the siege and all the dead Crusader bodies that were not buried. With some assistance, he began to bury the dead Crusaders and help with the wounded. His movement gained traction and popularity so William formed an order with Acre being incorporated to its name as a memorial of its founding location. He started out by raising monies needed to ransom captives of the Muslim forces. Being successful at fundraising, William then proceeded to build a church and churchyard dedicated to St. Thomas `a Becket whereupon the order became known as "Commemorative Order of St. Thomas of Acon" (Acon being the anglicized version of Acre). This order was truly unique as it was the only order composed of Englishmen. This order, out of necessity, would become militarized and fight alongside the other military orders found in Acre.

Once captured in 1191, Acre served as the de facto capital of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem as Jerusalem was still under the control of Saladin's forces as well as the headquarters of the military orders such as the Knights Templar, Knights Hospitallier, and German Teutonic Knights. The city expanded with new neighborhoods, palaces, churches, and public buildings which required new defenses built in the form of a double city wall.

Acre would remain in control of the Crusaders until 1291 when the Mamluk Sultan Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil captured the city in a bloody siege and razed the city so it could not be used against him or his successors in the future. Acre was the last stronghold of the Crusaders on the Levantine mainland and many, such as the Knights Templar, fled to islands such as Cyprus.

The Mamluks had been capturing small portions of what remained of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, but when the Tripoli fell, the leaders in Acre started to prepare and fortify Acre in hopes of keeping it and repelling the Mamluk army headings its way. The Mamluk army was strengthened by troops from Damascus, Hama, Tripoli, and al-Kark which arrived at Acre on April 5, 1291. Over the next 2-weeks the Mamluks launched barrages against the towers and walls of Acre and engaged in small skirmishes with the Crusading forces. On May 5, Acre attempted to settle the matter with a plea for mercy, but this failed. On May 8, the towers began to cave in from the immense damage dealt to them by the Mamluks. The days following were seen with attacks into the city, but a complete victory wasn't accomplished until the 18th of May, and by that time many rulers were able to escape. Not everyone was willing to surrender to the Mamluks; the Knights Templar held out until May 28 when their fortress finally collapsed killing them and most of the attacking Mamluks. The Fall of Acre signaled the end of the Crusader control of the Holy Land.


While much of the city was in ruin, it was still used as a port, even during the Mamluk era which lasted until 1517 AD when Acre was taken over by the Ottomans. Under the Ottomans it seems Acre was neglected as it fell into disuse and decay. By the end of the 17th century, there were just a few buildings, some cottages, some religious sites, and a few French merchants.

Tribal leaders or sheikhs were able to take it over. At the end of the 18th century Acre was revived and made the seat of power under the rule of Dhaher al-Omar, sometimes known as Zahir al-Umar al-Zaydani, whose domain included Galilee, Tiberias (near the Hills of Hattin), Arraba, Nazareth, and Deir Hanna. It was during this sheikhdom that Acre's fortifications were rebuilt. Such were the fortifications that not even Napoleon was able to capture the city in 1799, but was destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in 1831. During the Egyptian-Ottoman War, naval forces from England, Turkey, and Austria shelled Acre causing Ibrahim Pasha to flee the city. After this war, Acre served as the capital of the northern region of the Land of Israel in the Ottoman Empire.


During the British Mandate of Palestine after World War I, Acre was reconstructed. In the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan, Acre was originally designated to be a part of a future Arab state, but was besieged and captured by the Israeli's during the 1948 War. The port of Acre fell into disuse as it was supplanted by the port of Haifa, located along the south side of the Bay of Haifa (opposite of Acre).

Today Acre is a city with a mixed demography with Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Acre is considered the holiest city for the Bahá'í Faith, a monotheistic religion emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind and was founded in Persia during the 19th century. Throughout its history, this city has been under Phoenician, Assyrian, Roman, Byzantine, Hellenistic, Persian, Islamic, Crusader, British, and Israeli control. Even with its destruction, Acre has many well preserved remains which show off its unique history and the styles of architecture seen in the urban life of Acre throughout the years; recent excavations have uncovered Hellenistic and Roman cemeteries as well as a temple dedicated to Antiochus VII Euergetes (sometimes referred to as Sidetes), a ruler of the Seleucid Empire. In 2002, the oldest part of the city of Acre was declared a world cultural preservation site by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and serves as a major tourist attraction. Acre, today, serves much of Western Galilee in trade and administration matters.

References


1. History. n.d. http://www.akko.org.il/en/Old-Acre-History. 

2. Czech, Kenneth P. Third Crusade: Siege of Acre. August 2001. http://www.historynet.com/third-crusade-siege-of-acre.htm. 

3. Hickman, Kennedy. Crusades: Siege of Acre. n.d. http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars10011200/p/siege-of-acre.htm.

4. Acre, Israel. n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel. 

5. Acre: History & Overview. 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/acre.html. 


6. Alexander Jannaeus. n.d. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Jannaeus. 


7. Bahai Faith. n.d. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bah%C3%A1%27%C3%AD_Faith. 


8. Lendering, Jona. Alexander I Balas. n.d. http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander01/alexander_i_balas.html. 


9. Old City of Acre. n.d. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1042. 


10. Siege of Acre (1189-91). n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1189–91). 


11. Siege of Acre (1291). n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1291). 


12. Sites - Israel: Akko or Acre. n.d. http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=49&sub=4654&cat_name=Sites+-+Israel&subcat_name=Akko+or+Acre. 


13. Snell, Melissa. Acre, City of. n.d. http://historymedren.about.com/od/aterms/g/city_of_acre.htm. 


14. The British Mandate Period. n.d. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths3/MFmandate.html.