Sunday, January 19, 2020

Wyoming College SRICF

Last week I was in southern California where it was around 70*F each day. This week I was playing catch-up in the office. This weekend, though, I spent in Wyoming attending the SRICF College meeting. This weekend marks the 4th Anniversary since I was initiated the Society. It's a long drive: nearly 10-hours with good road conditions over 591-miles (951.1-km for non-Americans). Several roads were closed (including portions of a federal freeway) and most were snow-covered and with blowing snow. It made an interesting drive, to say the least.

While I am Celebrant of Idaho College, I'm still a member of Wyoming College and I served as Celebrant for this meeting because the Wyoming Celebrant couldn't make it. I had the pleasure of conferring the I*, or Zelator, on two new Fratres, one of whom is my counterpart, R.I. Deputy Grand Master, in the Grand Council of Cryptic Masons of Wyoming. The rest of the meeting went smoothly and two Fratres each presented a paper.


Thursday, January 16, 2020

Holy Mary Theotokos

Today is the Feast Day for Mary Theotokos, the Mother of God. Among various Christian churches Mary is venerated and a prominent figure of the faith, for both Gnostic and non-Gnostic Christian sects. Most Rev. Mar Timotheos, Bishop of New South Wales of the Apostolic Johannite Church, once said, "to be Johannite is to be a Marian."

Her importance cannot be overstated, but has often been undermined by some. The Virgin Mother was predicted by the Prophet Isaiah who saw a vision of the miraculous birth of the Messiah. Mary fulfilled this prophecy when she was visited by the Archangel Gabriel who informed her of her destiny and her duty. While her appearance in the Bible is scattered, she is present for many important events in Christ's life.

The title "Theotokos" has been in use since the Third Ecumenical Council of Ephesus of 431 AD. Prior to this council, some referred to her as Christotokos, or "Christ-Bearer", but the council settled Theotokos as Christotokos wasn't accurate and didn't incorporate the divine nature of the Nazarene. Theologically speaking though, this title doesn't imply that Mary was the source of the divine nature of Jesus, but only that she was the vessel through which the Logos became Incarnate. Other titles and descriptors of her include Virgin Mother, Second Eve, Mother of God, Ever Virgin, and the Immaculate.

The Theotokos has been immortalized in a number of paintings such as the "Virgin of the Rocks" which is one of my favorite paintings and was included in books concerning alternative theories of Christ such as Holy Blood, Holy Grail, Templar Revelations, and The DaVinci Code.


Thursday, January 2, 2020

Templar Biography: Guillaume de Sonnac

The 18th Templar Grand Master was Guillaume (or William) de Sonnac. His tenure was considered a violent one, particularly since he died after losing both of his eyes in a fight with the Mameluks, but he also is remembered for creating the most in-depth, codified records for this knighthood. 

De Sonnac was born to a noble family in the Rouergue region of France. The Rouergue region exists today as the Department of Aveyron. Historically this region sat in between Auvergne, the Languedoc, the Gévaudan, and Quercy. 

It isn't exactly known when he was born which is very ironic as he is remembered for being a great chronicler of Templar records Nor is it known when he joined the Templars, but prior to serving as Grand Master, he served as Preceptor of Aquitaine in France. 

He arrived into the Holy Land in 1247 to find the Templar order in a diminished capacity after a series of failed battles. On October 17, 1244, the Battle of La Forbie started and which resulted in the death of more than 30,000 crusaders. It is debated as to whether the Grand Master, Armand de Périgord, died at the battle or was imprisoned where he later died. 

By the end of 1247, a chapter was assembled at Pilgrim's Castle and De Sonnac was elected the order's new leader. He not only came into this role with a weakened order, but also a weakened kingdom as the Muslims had retaken Tiberias, Mount Tabor, Belvoir and Ascalon. Not wanting to completely lose the Holy Land, King Louis IX of France launched the Seventh Crusade. 

In June 1249, the Crusaders and Templars captured Damietta (a town in Egypt along the Mediterranean coast). In November, the army started towards Cairo (south-southeast of Damietta), but had to go through Mansourah to defeat a large Egyptian force. The crusader army could not overcome the city as the Nile River was running high. In February 1250, a local showed the crusaders how to cross the river. Without the support of the main Crusader army, Robert, the Count of Artois and brother to King Louis IX, launched an attack on Mansourah. De Sonnac spoke against it, but ultimately joined the assault. 

The Mameluks used the narrow streets against the knights who couldn't maneuver and defend themselves. De Sonnac and one other Templar were the only ones who escaped Mansourah, though De Sonnac had lost an eye. As De Sonnac escaped, the rest of Crusader army arrived and was able to drive the Mameluks back into Mansourah. 

On April 6 (some sources say April 11), 1250, the Mameluks launched another assault on the besieging crusaders. The Templars fought the Mameluks, but De Sonnac had been overwhelmed, lost another eye, and then lost his life. This battle not only resulted in the defeat of the Crusaders, but marked the end of the Seventh Crusade and the capture of King Louis IX. De Sonnac was succeeded by Renaud de Vichiers.

References

1. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Guillaume de Sonnac. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/guillaume-sonnac-eng.php

2. Napier, G. (2014). Pocket A-Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press.

3. Rowe, D. M. (2013). A Chronological View of the Crusades. Retrieved from Knights Templar magazine: http://www.knightstemplar.org/KnightTemplar/articles/crusades.htm

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Goodbye 2019

They say it's darkest before the dawn. 2018 was a very dark time in my life and 2019 was definitely a new dawn. Some of the highlights of my year were: 
  • helping start Idaho College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (SRICF); 
  • and, at the 2019 SRICF High Council meeting, being advanced to the Third Order and received the VIII° and IX°, the highest honor of my Masonic career.

As 2019 draws to a close, I'm spending the night with old friends and partying in the New Year. I look forward to 2020 with a lot of Masonic Rosicrucianism, lots of York Rite Masonry (particularly Cryptic Masonry), and a lot of work with the Committee on Masonic Research and Education.



Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Merry Christmas

To all of my family, friends, Brothers, Companions, Sir Knights, Companion Knights, Fellows, Knights Companion, Cousins, Knights, and Fratres around the world:

Merry Christmas and a Happy Holidays!!

Today we celebrate the birth of the Logos Incarnate, the Blessed Redeemer and True Light of the World.



Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Adam and Eve

Today is Christmas Eve and the Feast Day of Adam and Eve, who were the first man and woman that lived in the Garden of Eden before being expelled after being tricked into eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

For several centuries, this Feast Day was celebrated with a drama called Paradise Play that retold the story of mankind from the creation of Adam and Eve to the Birth of Jesus Christ. It is very appropriate to celebrate Adam and Eve on the day before Christmas as it brings Advent into a full circle; Adam and Eve condemned mankind with Original Sin and the promise of salvation of mankind marked by Christ's birth and eventual sacrifice on Calvary.

Christmas Eve came about, as the start of the commemorations of the birth of Jesus the Nazarene, due in part to the Christian liturgical day starting as sunset, a practice inherited from Jewish traditions generally and specifically from the Book of Genesis where it’s written: "And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day."

The nativity of Jesus or the birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. The Christmas Story starts around taxation because not even the Savior was exempt from government taxation. During the reign of Caesar Augustus, a degree was issued to hold a census of the entire Roman Empire. In the Roman-controlled Judah, there was a man named Joseph who was pledged to be married to a woman named Mary. While still a virgin, Mary was impregnated by the Holy Spirit. Joseph being an honorable man did want to expose her to public disgrace and was informed by the archangel Gabriel, the messenger of God, that the baby would be named Jesus because he would save the people from the world. Joseph and Mary traveled to the town of David as Joseph belonged to the house and line of David and the census required one to be registered in their hometown. While in Bethlehem, Mary went into labor and gave birth to Jesus Christ. Because no rooms were available, they had to stay in a manger, today we would call it a stable.

The three Magi were visited by an angel who declared the Messiah had been born and these three traveled to Bethlehem, following a star in the sky said to rest over where Jesus was born. On there, they came to King Herod and informed them of what they saw from the angels of the Lord. Herod ordered the Magi to go onto Bethlehem to find the Savior so he could worship him as well, but intended to kill the infant Christ. When they found the baby Jesus, they praised his glory and bestowed the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. God intervened and through his angels gave warning both the Magi and the Holy Family which allowed them to escape into Egypt until the death of Herod.

To end this, I’d like to quote James Allan Francis and say “Nineteen wide centuries have come and gone and today He is the centerpiece of the human race and the leader of the column of progress. I am far within the mark when I say that all the armies that ever marched, and all the navies that ever were built, and all the parliaments that ever sat, all the kings that ever reigned, put together have not affected the life of man upon this earth as powerfully as has that One Solitary Life.”

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Templar Biography: Thibaud Gaudin

The second to last of the medieval Knights Templar was Thibaud Gaudin who was known for his great piety, for attempting to reorganize the order, and for serving less than a year.

Born sometime in 1229 to a noble family around the Chartres or Blois area of France (SW of Paris), but the majority of his life is a mystery and there exists little to no extant records.

By 1260, he was in the Knights Templar because in that year he was taken prisoner during an attack on Tiberias. During his Templar career, he also served as Turcopolier and then Preceptor of Acre. `In 1279, Gaudin was the Commander of the Land of Jerusalem, which is fourth highest ranking member of the order, and is also the Treasurer.

He took part in the defense of Acre in 1291 where Guillaume de Beaujeu, his predecessor died. When it was clear that Acre was going to fall to the Saracens, Gaudin was put on a boat for Sidon; Acre lies south of Tyre and Sidon is north of Tyre. In August of 1291 in Sidon, Gaudin was elected as Grand Master of the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon. In October of 1291, with a larger convocation gathered, the knights reaffirmed the Guadin's election, but also elected Jacques DeMolay as Marshal.

After the fall of Acre and the approach of the Saracens on Sidon, Gaudin went to Cyprus to gather more reinforcements. With the decline of fortunes in the Middle East, Guadin tried to reorganize the order, but was busied with helping protect the Kingdom of Armenia. It is believed that the job was too much for him because on April 16, 1292, he died of exhaustion. Of all things, he is remembered for his great piety which earned him the nickname of "Gaudin Monk."

References

1. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Thibaud Gaudin. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/thibaud-gaudin-eng.php 

2. Knights Templar Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved from Medieval Life and Times: http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/crusades/knights-templar-timeline.htm 

3. Thibaud Gaudin. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thibaud_Gaudin

4. Napier, G. (2014). Pocket A-Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press.

Sunday, December 8, 2019

The Color Purple

While blue is the color most associated with Ancient Craft Masonry, the color purple comes up right behind. Purple epitomizes royalty, and particularly King Solomon and Hiram of Tyre who are central in the legend of Ancient Craft Masonry which includes the Blue Lodge, Royal Arch Masonry, Cryptic Masonry, and why it is used by Grand Lodge officers in their collars and aprons.

The color purple is the intermediate between the colors blue and red, and is sometimes called violet or mauve. It is the major color that occurs the least frequently in nature and was the first color to be synthesized. Purple is also the most powerful wavelength of the visible wavelengths of electromagnetic energy and is the hardest color for the eye to discriminate.

The word "purple" is etymologically rooted in the Old English word "purpul" which came from the Latin "purpura" which in turn came from the Greek word "πορφύρα" or porphura. The first use of the word "purple" is in 975 AD in England.

The color purple is associated monarchs because it was so rare and so expensive to produce that only rulers could afford to purchase it; it is also associated with wisdom, dignity, grandeur, rarity, romance, penitence, magic, the feminine, mystery, and piety as well as vanity, decadence, and extravagance.

The original dye used to make purple came from the city of Tyre, which is now in modern-day Lebanon, sometime around 1900 BC. The dye was made from small mollusks, called the spiny dye-murex snail, that were found in the Tyrian region of the Mediterranean. It took 9,000 or more of these mollusks to produce one gram of Tyrian purple. The snail's shell would be cracked open, the snail removed and soaked, a tiny gland removed, and the gland's juices extracted and then left in the sun. The sun would turn the juice to white then to yellow-green then green then violet and then dark red. The process had to be stopped just right to get the desired purple color. In recent years, the process was recreated and to make an ounce would cost over $2,000.

According to myth, Melqart, the guardian god of Tyre, and a nymph named Tyrus were walking on a beach when Heracles' dog bit into a mullosk's shell and its mouth turned purple. Tyrus asked Heracles to make her a garment of purple and thus Tyrian purple was created/discovered. Melqart is believed to be the equivalent to Heracles who is also known as Hercules.

Early on, the color purple was worn by the rulers of Rome, Greece, Egypt, and Persia. Because these leaders were often deified by their subjects, the color purple came to represent divinity and holiness. After the fall of the Roman Empire, it was used by the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire then to other dynasties and kingdoms. It is also used by Bishops in a number of Christian churches and by professors of European universities.

Purple was also used by the Polynesians, the Chinese, the Japanese, Mayans, and Aztecs. In these other regions of the world the color purple was made from sea urchins, other types of snail, or the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum) which grows in Mexico; most of these other dyes though did not have the longevity of Tyrian purple.

The use of purple by royalty waned after the Byzantine Empire fell in 1453, but was still used by some monarchs. During Elizabethan England, the color was regulated so much that only the Royal Family could wear it. In 1856, an English chemist named William Henry Perkin created, by accident, a synthetic purple compound while attempting to create an anti-malaria drug. He patented the dye and made a fortune from it.

References

1. Andrews, E. (2018, August 22). Why is purple considered the color of royalty? Retrieved from History Channel: https://www.history.com/news/why-is-purple-considered-the-color-of-royalty 

2. Barbieri, A. (2015, March 12). The Invention of the Colour Purple. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/mar/12/the-invention-of-the-colour-purple 

3. Bourn, J. (2011, January 5). Color Meaning: Meaning of the Color Purple. Retrieved from Bourn Creative: https://www.bourncreative.com/meaning-of-the-color-purple/ 

4. Colours in Freemasonry. (n.d.). Retrieved from Euclid Lodge No.158: http://euclidlodge158.com/documents/COLOURSINFREEMASONRY.pdf 

5. Kingsbury, H. A. (1919, July). Significance of Masonic Colors. Retrieved from Masonic Dictionary: http://www.masonicdictionary.com/colors.html 

6. Melina, R. (2011, June 03). Why Is the Color Purple Associated With Royalty? Retrieved from Live Science: https://www.livescience.com/33324-purple-royal-color.html 

7. Olesen, J. (n.d.). Purple Color Meaning - The Color Purple. Retrieved from Color Meanings: https://www.color-meanings.com/purple-color-meaning-the-color-purple/ 

8. Purple. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple 

9. Shroeder, J. (n.d.). Color Symbolism and Freemasonry. Retrieved from The Masonic Trowel: http://www.themasonictrowel.com/Articles/Symbolism/general_files/color_symbolism_and_freemasonry.htm 

10. The Masonic Symbolism of Color. (n.d.). Retrieved from Freemason Information: http://freemasoninformation.com/masonic-education/books/the-beginning-of-masonry/the-masonic-symbolism-of-color/ 

11. The Meanings of Purple. (n.d.). Retrieved from Color Matters: https://www.colormatters.com/the-meanings-of-colors/purple

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Josiah Drummond

There are a number of famous Masons that one can read about: William Preston who contributed greatly to Masonic ritual and research, John Theophilus Desaguliers who is considered the Father of modern Speculative Freemasonry, Thomas Smith-Webb who is referred to as the Father of the American Rite, and Albert Pike who revised the ritual of the Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the USA and later served as the Sovereign Grand Commander. Within the York Rite, we can look at such men Jeremy Ladd-Cross who is known as the Father of the Cryptic Rite and Ephraim A. Kirby who was the first General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the US. However, not much is ever discussed about Josiah Drummond. This distinguished Brother, among other accomplishments, would serve the Craft as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, Provincial Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States for the Royal Order of Scotland, and the first General Grand Master of the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International.

Josiah Drummond was born on August 30, 1827, in Winslow, ME. He attended Vassalboro Academy and graduated from Colby College in 1846. He practiced law in the state and was active in state politics where is served as Speaker of the Main House of Representatives, State Senator, and Attorney General for Maine. Outside of politics and law, he served as Director of Maine Central Railroad and Union Mutual Life Insurance Company. He also served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at Colby College from 1890-1902.

He was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason in Waterville Lodge No.33 on January 1, 1849, in Waterville, ME. Eleven years later, at the age of 33, he was elected as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine and served until 1862. He served as Most Excellent Grand High Priest of Royal Arch Masons of Maine in 1866 and Right Eminent Grand Commander of Knights Templar of Maine in 1878.

The Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite became divided by the mid-19th century into two camps known as the "Van Rensselaer Council" and the "Hays-Raymond Council". This divide came to an end in 1867 when the Sovereign Grand Commanders from both sides resigned and both groups elected Josiah Drummond as their Sovereign Grand Commander. His governance is marked by the healing of the rifts and expanding the rite throughout the northern jurisdiction. He served as Sovereign Grand Commander until 1879.


While he presided over the Scottish Rite, he also served as the 11th General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; being elected and installed in 1871 and serving to 1874.

For several years, starting in 1873, there had been an effort to create a national governing body for the Cryptic Rite, but the proverbial can kept being kicked down the road. It would not be until 1880 that the General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons would be formed and Josiah Drummond would serve as the first Most Puissant General Grand Master. Many place the success of the 1880 convention on Josiah as the previous conventions had resulted in no significant end.

In addition to his efforts in the Scottish Rite, Albert Pike also founded the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States of the Royal Order of Scotland in 1877 and appointed Josiah Drummond as his Provincial Deputy Grand Master; the two Sovereign Grand Commanders serving as the top two officers seems appropriate for this body. Pike served as the Provincial Grand Master until his death in 1891 when Josiah Drummond took over as the second Provincial Grand Master.

Josiah was also involved with the Allied Masonic Degrees before the Grand Council was established in 1933 when it was still referred to as the "Sovereign College of Allied Masonic and Christian Degrees" before it became defunct. It is interesting to note that this Sovereign College conferred honorary academic degrees such as Doctor in Universal Masonry, Doctor in Masonic Law, Doctor in Masonic Letters, Doctor in Masonic Theology, and Bachelor of Masonic Law. Josiah Drummond was a recipient of the Doctor in Universal Masonry.

On October 25, 1902, in Portland, ME, at the age of 75, this truly distinguished Mason dropped forever the working tools of life. He has left an indelible mark upon the American Freemasonry. To remember such a Mason, the Grand Lodge of Maine established the Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal in 1939 an award for those "whose outstanding proficiency in the knowledge of Freemasonry and distinguished service in the successful application of that knowledge for the advancement of the welfare of the Craft shall have rendered them worthy of such recognition and honor."

References

1. Bickle, A. (2016, July 16). Josiah Hayden Drummond. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Josiah-Drummond/6000000044031806361 

2. Denslow, W. R. (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Vol 1. Retrieved from Phoenix Masonry: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/10,000_famous_freemasons/Volume_1_A_to_D.htm 

3. General Grand Council not Contemplated. (1924, June). Retrieved from The Builder Magazine: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/the_builder_1924_june.htm 

4. Jackson, C. W. (n.d.). Historical Sketch. Retrieved from Grand Council of Allied Masonic Degrees, USA: http://www.amdusa.org/sketch.html 

5. Josiah Hayden Drummond Distinguished Service Medal. (n.d.). Retrieved from Grand Lodge of Maine: https://www.mainemason.org/grand-lodge/drummond-medal/ 

6. Josiah Hayden Drummond Passes Away. (2016, October 25). Retrieved from Today in Masonic History: https://www.masonrytoday.com/index.php?new_month=10&new_day=25&new_year=2016 

7. Pace, T. C. (n.d.). A Brief History of the Allied Masonic Degrees. Retrieved from New Jersey Councils of the Allied Masonic Degrees: http://www.njamd.com/history/4578278471 

8. Past General Grand High Priests. (n.d.). Retrieved from General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons International: http://www.ramint.org/pgghp.html 

9. Past Provincial Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Provincial Grand Lodge, USA: https://roosusa.org/past-pgms/ 

10. Shute, J. R. (1975). The Innovators. Retrieved from Grand College of Rites, USA: http://grandcollegeofrites.org/innovators/ 

11. Sovereign Grand Commanders. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history/sovereign-grand-commanders 

12. The History of the Scottish Rite. (n.d.). Retrieved from Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction: https://scottishritenmj.org/about/history 

13. Weekly Decryption. (2018, January). Retrieved from General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International: https://www.crypticmasons.org/72-weekly-decryption/87-20180103 

14. Woodland, W. N. (n.d.). Some Ordo, Some Chao. Retrieved from Boston Lafayette Lodge of Perfection: https://www.scottishriteboston.net/en/page.php?id=160#.XZvwwEZKhPZ

Friday, November 29, 2019

Templar Biography: Pedro de Montaigu

Pedro de Montaigu (also known as Pierre de Montaigu, Peter de Montaigu, or Petrus de Monteacuto) was the 15th Grand Master of the medieval Knights Templar and presided over this knighthood for 14-years during the 5th and 6th Crusades. It was during his tenure that the relationship between the Knights Hospitalliers and the Templars eased. He is remembered for his diplomatic prowess and serving as an arbiter during various conflicts.

Montaigu was born sometime toward the end of the 12th century. It is unknown when he joined the Templars, but it is known that Montaigu served as Master of Provence and Aragon from 1211 until 1218.

He took part in the Siege of Damiette alongside Guillaume de Chartres, the Grand Master of the Order at the time. After the death of de Chartres in 1218, Montaigu was elected as Grand Master of the Templars. During his time as Grand Master, the Hospitalliers were led by a Guerin de Montaigu who is thought to have been his brother.

The Sultans of Cairo and Damas united to defeat the Christians, but was repelled by an army composed of the Templars, Hospitalliers, and the Teutonic Knights. The Sultan of Damas then tried to barter a truce with the Christians via the Templar Grand Master, but the Papal Legate, Pelage, refused to accept it so the truce fell through. Had this truce come to fruition, the Sultan had promised to return pieces of wood from the True Cross that was captured during the Battle of Hattin.

A truce finally came about in 1221 which allowed the Templars to send troops to Spain to assist in the Reconquista.

The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II attacked Templar and Hospitallier lands after they criticized him for attempting to steal the wealth of the Christian Levant and was, for a time, excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.

Montaigu died in January of 1232 from Apoplexy (cerebral hemorrhage). He was succeeded by Armand de Périgord.

References

1. Addison, C. G. (1842). The History of the Knights Templar. Retrieved from Sacred Texts: https://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/hkt/hkt09.htm 

2. Cobbold, D. (n.d.). Pierre de Montaigu. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/pierre-montaigu-eng.php 

3. Grand Masters. (n.d.). Retrieved from Ordre Souverain et Militaire du Temple de Jérusalem: https://www.theknightstemplar.org/1942-2/ 

4. Hibbard, S. D. (2016, December 4). Pierre de Montaigu, 15th Templar Grand Master. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Pierre-de-Montaigu-15th-Templar-Grand-Master/6000000019310193146 

5. Napier, G. (2008). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. The History Press. 

6. Peire de Montagut. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peire_de_Montagut 

7. The Templar Grand Masters. (2010, April). Retrieved from Templar History: http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/04/the-templar-grand-masters/